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Reusability – A software product has good reusability, if the different modules of the product can easily be reused to develop new products. With quality management standards, organizations can steadily assure that their software products achieve an acceptable level of quality. For these measurements, the atomic objects are to be defined for different types of diagrams and symbols. Assuring with an acceptable level of confidence that the software maintenance activities will conform to the functional technical requirements. The McCall factor model provides a practical, up-to-date method for classifying software requirements (Pressman, 2000). At this level, the designers get the idea of proposed solution domain. Naturally, due to their characteristics, many SQA standards in this class can serve as software engineering standards and vice versa. A distinct final formula is used for each count type: Application, Development Project, or Enhancement Project. DET − The number of user-recognizable fields. The standard set of measurements and reporting methods are especially important when the software is embedded in a product where the customers are not usually well-versed in software terminology. Theses graphs are called control-flow graph or directed graph. There are three techniques to answer the questions about a relationship: box plots, scatter plots, and correlation analysis. FPC = UFC * (0.65+(sum(GSC) * .01)), Complexity is a separate component of size. The development life cycle stage components detect design and programming errors. If BMI is less than 100, then the backlog increased. If a program P1 has more length than program P2, then any measure m should also satisfy. There are two cases of data to be considered: normal data and non-normal data. Quality software refers to a software which is reasonably bug or defect free, is delivered in time and within the specified budget, meets the requirements and/or expectations, and is maintainable. The SQA organizational base includes managers, testing personnel, the SQA unit and the persons interested in software quality such as SQA trustees, SQA committee members, and SQA forum members. The required accuracy of output that can be negatively affected by inaccurate data or inaccurate calculations. Problem complexity − Measures the complexity of the underlying problem. The process involves quality assurance, quality planning, and quality control. They also provide SQA certification through independent professional quality audits. Software size can be described with three attributes −. The results of an experiment are usually more generalizable than case study or survey. Data flow or information flow can be inter-modular (flow of information within the modules) or intra-modular (flow of information between individual modules and the rest of the system). IEEE Computer, July 1989, pp. It deals with the hardware resources needed to perform the different functions of the software system. The measure of increase in user productivity if any. The structure of SQA unit varies by type and size of the organization. In all these cases, the development unit is committed to an agreed-upon functional specification, budget and schedule. This simple metric of defects per KLOC or function point is a good indicator of quality, while the software is still being tested. SQA committees can be either permanent or ad hoc. The measurement of these three attributes can be described as follows −. Draft of the International Standards adopted by the technical committees is circulated to the member bodies for voting. found that a count of objects and methods led to more accurate productivity estimates than those using lines of code. One aspect of complexity is efficiency. The reuse of software is expected to save development resources, shorten the development period, and provide higher quality modules. Level of Skill required to learn/use the software. For example, maintainability but each of the factors is to be measured to check for the content and the quality control. Batch sequential is a classical data processing model, in which a data transformation subsystem can initiate its process only after its previous subsystem is completely through − 1. According to McCall’s model, three software quality factors are included in the product revision category. Data can be defined according to the following points −, Collection of data requires human observation and reporting. To achieve each of these, the objective should be expressed formally in terms of the hypothesis, and the analysis must address the hypothesis directly. At level 3, intermediate activities are defined with entry and exit criteria for each activity. It is the number of operational modes the product permits. Reusability • Software development process called frameworks that promotes reuse. Since the industrial products are visible, most of its defects can be detected during the manufacturing process. Software is rarely built completely from scratch. Hence, a study must be conducted to test whether a given measure reflects the changes in the attribute it is supposed to capture. The representational condition asserts that a measurement mapping (M) must map entities into numbers, and empirical relations into numerical relations in such a way that the empirical relations preserve and are preserved by numerical relations. In that simple data types such as integers, characters, and Booleans are viewed as primes and the various operations that enable us to build more complex data structures are considered. Product metrics − Describes the characteristics of the product such as size, complexity, design features, performance, and quality level. The key components of Empirical investigation in software engineering are −. This phase also provides opportunities to inspect the product to detect the defects that went unnoticed during the development phase. Product production planning − During this phase, the production process and tools are designed and prepared. The input measures can be the size and volatility of the requirements. Following are some of the internal attributes that can be measured directly for a process −, The duration of the process or one of its activities, The effort associated with the process or one of its activities, The number of incidents of a specified type arising during the process or one of its activities. For validating a measurement system, we need both a formal model that describes entities and a numerical mapping that preserves the attribute that we are measuring. According to the maturity level of the process given by SEI, the type of measurement and the measurement program will be different. The diagrams in the documents have uniform syntax such as labelled digraphs, data-flow diagrams or Z schemas. Usability requirements deal with the staff resources needed to train a new employee and to operate the software system. At level 2, the requirements are well-defined and the additional information such as the type of each requirement and the number of changes to each type can be collected. Measurement is the action of measuring something. It involves process-focused action. How effective and/or automated are start-up, back-up, and recovery procedures? Also the absence of a part in an industrial product can be easily detected in the product. SQA unit performs the following tasks for internal SQA audits, Preparation of annual programs for internal SQA audits, Follow-up of corrections and improvements to be carried out by the audited teams and other units, Preparation of periodic summary reports of the status of audit findings, including recommendations for improvements, SQA unit performs the following tasks for audits of subcontractors and suppliers −, Preparation of the annual program for SQA audits of subcontractors and suppliers, Performance of SQA audits of subcontractors and suppliers, Follow-up of corrections and improvements to be carried out by the audited subcontractors and suppliers, Collection of data on the performance of subcontractors and suppliers from internal as well as external sources, Periodic evaluation of the organization’s certified subcontractors’ and suppliers’ SQA systems based on audit reports and information collected from other internal and external sources. Registered IRCA auditors are required, among other things, to have experience in management and software development; they must also successfully complete an auditor's course. Case studies or surveys can be used to conform the effectiveness and utility of the conventional wisdom and many other standards, methods, or tools in a single organization. They are as follows −. When the target unit of assessment is at the project level, the assessment should include all meaningful factors that contribute to the success or failure of the project. Hence, the data should also be possible to replicate easily. The project life cycle is composed of two stages: the development life cycle stage and the operation–maintenance stage. $$\small Programmer\:Productivity = \frac{LOC \: produced }{Person \:months \:of \:effort}$$, $\small Module\:Defect\:Density = \frac{Number \:of\:defects}{Module \:size}$, $$\small Defect\:Detection\:Efficiency = \frac{Number \:of\:defects\:detected}{Total \:number \:of\:defects}$$, $\small Requirement\:Stability = \frac{Number \:of\:initial\:requirements}{Total \:number \:of\:requirements}$, $\small Test\:Effectiveness\:Ratio = \frac{Number \:of\:items\:covered}{Total \:number \:of \:items}$, $\small System\:spoilage = \frac{Effort \:spent\:for\:fixing\:faults}{Total \:project \:effort}$. For example − Some data related to project personnel can be collected at the start of the project, while other data collection such as effort begins at project starting and continues through operation and maintenance. These are measurements that can be measured in terms of any other entity or attribute. Structural complexity − Measures the structure of the software used to implement the algorithm. All arithmetic operations can be applied. Some stochastic prediction systems are more stochastic than others. [Biggerstaff 1989] T. J. Biggerstaff: Design Recovery for Maintenance and Reuse. Function point metrics provide a standardized method for measuring the various functions of a software application. The success in the software measurement lies in the quality of the data collected and analyzed. Hence, the main engineering tasks involve the following −, Testing quality and productivity aspects with respect to new development tools and new versions of currently used development tools, Evaluation of quality and productivity of new development and maintenance methods and method improvements, Development of solutions to difficulties confronted in application of currently used software development tools and methods, Development of methods for measuring software quality and team productivity, Provision of technological support to CAB committees during analysis of software development failures and formulation of proposed solutions, SQA information systems are meant to facilitate and improve the functioning of SQA systems. The upper branches hold important high level quality factors such as reliability and usability. Software Quality Management is a process that ensures the required level of software quality is achieved when it reaches the users, so that they are satisfied by its performance. These are elementary processes in which derived data passes across the boundary from inside to outside. The head of the SQA unit is responsible for all the quality assurance tasks performed by the SQA unit and its sub-units. The overall defect density during testing will provide only the summary of the defects. 3. It is mainly of 5 types −. An advantage of the process approach is the ongoing control that it provides over the linkage between the individual processes within the system of processes, as well as over their combination and interaction. A box plot can represent the summary of the range of a set of data. 5.2.1.2 Reliable software. It includes predefined intermediate results, log files, and also the automatic diagnostics performed by the software system prior to starting the system, to find out whether all components of the system are in working order and to obtain a report about the detected faults. The quality assurance organizational framework that operates within the organizational structure includes the following participants −, Top management executives, especially the executive directly in charge of software quality assurance, Software development and maintenance department managers, Project managers and team leaders of development and maintenance projects, SQA professionals and interested practitioners −. ILF − The number of internal log files. This factor considers the efforts that will be needed by users and maintenance personnel to identify the reasons for software failures, to correct the failures, and to verify the success of the corrections. After signing the software development contract with an organization or an internal department of the same organization, a development plan of the project and its integrated quality assurance activities are prepared. Often the output from one process directly forms the input to the next. The various standards may be classified into two main groups: quality management standards and project process standards. Hence, assuring of all these operational possibilities correctly is a major challenge to the software industry. Thus, these ‘taller than’, higher than’ are empirical relations for height. Safety-critical software is called reliable software. We can measure the effectiveness of the process activities. If it is yet to occur, then case study or formal experiment may be chosen. Validating prediction systems in a given environment is the process of establishing the accuracy of the prediction system by empirical means, i.e. Following are some types of maintenance based on their characteristics: 1. A scatter plot represents the relationship between two variables. How heavily used is the current hardware platform where the application will be executed? These characteristics of software such as complexity and invisibility make the development of software quality assurance methodology and its successful implementation a highly professional challenge. Data that is collected for measurement purpose is of two types −. The measurement mapping must start at zero and increase at equal intervals, known as units. The major reason for measuring internal product attributes is that, it will help monitor and control the products during development. ISO technical committees prepare the International Standards. Can they be replicated? software development methodology that uses minimal planning in favor of rapid prototyping The activities establish and evaluate the processes that produce products. This model classifies all software requirements into 11 software quality factors. Are they associated with a particular activity or time period? Product operation factors− Correctness, Reliability, Efficiency, Integrity, Usability. A graph-theoretic approach can be used to analyze and measure the properties of individual data structures. A software requirement can be of 3 types: Functional requirements; Non-functional requirements; Domain requirements ; Functional Requirements: These are the requirements that the end user specifically demands as basic facilities that the system should offer. Component Reusability Watch more Videos at https://www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htm Lecture By: Mr. Arnab Chakraborty, Tutorials Point … For example, the assessment team must be led by an authorized SEI Lead Assessor. Are they correct? Fix backlog is related to the rate of defect arrivals and the rate at which fixes for reported problems become available. Function point analysis is a standard method for measuring software development from the user's point of view. For example − This software performs well. High-level Design- The high-level design breaks the ‘single entity-multiple component’ concept of architectural design into less-abstracted view of sub-systems and modules and depicts their interaction with each ot… Product transition factors− Portability, Reusability, Interoperability. In a shop, the price acts as a measure of the value of an item. The 11 factors are grouped into three categories – product operation, product revision, and product transition factors. Software Testing; Data Mining; Data Structures; Distributed Database; HTML; CSS; Javascript; PHP; Papers; MCQs; Projects; Contact; Tutorials Notes Lectures MCQs Articles. The improvement in the process or products can be performed only when the project has clearly defined goals for processes and products. Population parameters represent the values that would be obtained if all possible subjects were measured. Thus, the combination of process maturity with GQM will provide most useful measures. Software reuse is a good cost-efficient and time-saving development way. It appears in many difierent forms from ad-hoc reuse to systematic reuse, and from white-box reuse to black-box reuse. During these period, resources such as staff availability, professional capabilities may get changed. Productivity can be considered as a function of the value and the cost. Are they appropriately precise? For example −. Data collection is also essential for scientific investigation of relationships and trends. It should maintain the balance for both novice and expert user. Later, analyze each question in terms of what measurement we need in order to answer each question. The representational condition requires that for any measure M, The key stages of measurement can be summarized as follows −. Measurement is a direct quantification whereas calculation is an indirect one where we combine different measurements using some formulae. Architectural Design - The architectural design is the highest abstract version of the system. These models are usually constructed in a tree-like fashion. Fan-in (M) − The number of local flows that terminate at M + the number of data structures from which the information is retrieved by M. Fan–out (M) − The number of local flows that emanate from M + the number of data structures that are updated by M. Data structure can be both local and global. According to McCall’s model, three software quality factors are included in the product revision category. Interoperability . Product transition factors − Portability, Reusability, Interoperability. If there are more than two groups to compare, a general analysis of variance test called F-statistics can be used. It is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. Each and every entity should be placed in a particular class or category based on the value of the attribute. These are the measurements that can be measured without the involvement of any other entity or attribute. It is a rigorous controlled investigation of an activity, where the key factors are identified and manipulated to document their effects on the outcome. There are many software measures to capture the value of an attribute. Each can be decomposed into different measurable size, functionality, time, money, etc. The 11 factors are grouped into three categories – product operation, product revision, and product transition factors. For example, X is taller than Y. X, Y are much taller than Z. Empirical relations can be unary, binary, ternary, etc. Reusability Adaptability Maintenance This aspect briefs about how well a software has the capabilities to maintain itself in the ever-changing environment: Modularity Maintainability Flexibility Scalability In short, Software engineering is a branch of computer science, which uses well-defined The program level of a program P of volume V is, Where, $V^\ast$ is the potential volume, i.e., the volume of the minimal size implementation of P, According to Halstead theory, we can calculate an estimate L as, $${L}' = 1\diagup D = \frac{2}{\mu_{1}} \times \frac{\mu_{2}}{N_{2}}$$, Similarly, the estimated program length is, $\mu_{1}\times log_{2}\mu_{1}+\mu_{2}\times log_{2}\mu_{2}$. Work on software reusability, which can be regarded as encompassing automatic programming, strives to devise methods, architectures and tools to allow knowledge about one software system to be reused to build a different software system. For example: If most of the data is present on the left-hand side of the mean, then we can say that the distribution is skewed to the left. These members provide the internal support necessary for successfully implementing SQA components. Normally, a software is developed for a contract negotiated with a customer or for an internal order to develop a firmware to be embedded within a hardware product. Range − Mathematical world such as integers, real number, etc. Similarly, in case of software measurement, the checklist of the statement to be included in the lines of code to be specified. The term "usability" in the context of creating software represents an approach that puts the user, instead of the system, at the center of the process. TickIT is, additionally, specializing in information technology (IT). Activities during this process: Configuration auditing is conducted by auditors by checking that defined processes are being followed and ensuring that the SCM goals are satisfied. Reusability is the key paradigm for increasing software quality in the software development. Compute value adjustment factor (VAF) based on 14 general system characteristics (GSC). Examples include the effectiveness of defect removal during development, the pattern of testing defect arrival, and the response time of the fix process. The various factors, which influence the software, are termed as software factors. As a live example, we recently explored Component Reusability for a client partner to bring in cost and time savings. Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a set of activities for ensuring quality in software engineering processes. The organization being investigated must be determined. The atomic entities for Z schemas are the various lines appearing in the specification. Once the database is designed and populated with data, we can make use of the data manipulation languages to extract the data for analysis. The hypothesis is the tentative theory or supposition that the programmer thinks explains the behavior they want to explore. Software reliability is a term to be avoided, though it is used widely and there are suggestions that the term reliable software could be used instead. TickIT auditors who conduct audit-based assessments and certification audits are registered by the International Register of Certificated Auditors (IRCA). The measurement takes the information about the attributes of entities. The metric of percent defective fixes is the percentage of all fixes in a time interval that is defective. Usability requirements deal with the staff resources needed to train a new employee and to operate the software system. It is the time between failures. by comparing the model performance with known data in the given environment. The evaluation report includes −, Recommendations regarding certification of subcontractors and suppliers, External audits performed by certification bodies involve the following tasks −, Coordination of the certification audit’s contents and schedule, Preparation of documents specified by the certification bodies, Instruction of the audited teams and performance of the preparations necessary for certification audits, Ensure required corrections and improvements are performed, SQA audits performed by the organization’s customers entail these tasks −, Coordination of the audit’s contents and schedule, Preparation of documents specified by the customer’s auditor, Instruction of the audited teams and performance of the preparations necessary for SQA audits by the organization’s customers, Ensure that the required corrections and improvements are performed, Most of the consumers of SQA support services are located within the organization. It presents a particularly difficult problem when designing an experiment or case study, because their predictions often affect the outcome. In software engineering, measurement is essential for the following three basic activities −. With regard to data collection, the CBA IPI relies on four methods −, The Standard CMMI Assessment Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) was developed to satisfy the CMMI model requirements (Software Engineering Institute, 2000). Let's explore this in detail. Product revision factors− Maintainability, Flexibility, Testability. Product revision factors − Maintainability, Flexibility, Testability. Software reliability is a term to be avoided, though it is used widely and there are suggestions that the term reliable software could be used instead. It involves experimentation and hypothesis testing. Models are usually used to predict the outcome of an activity or to guide the use of a method or tool. The more mature the process, the richer will be the measurements. T4Tutorials tries its best to provide you notes and … The first two classes of audits are initiated and performed by the SQA subunit, the last two by external bodies. With SQA, the software development process moves into the next phase only once the current/previous phase complies with the required quality standards. It is the mapping from the empirical world to the formal relational world. It is of two types −. Together they provide a context for measurement. RET − The number of user-recognizable data elements in an ILF or ELF. Examples include the number of software developers, the staffing pattern over the life cycle of the software, cost, schedule, and productivity. It also deals with the time between recharging of the system’s portable units, such as, information system units located in portable computers, or meteorological units placed outdoors. Example: To characterize the product in order to learn it. The accuracy of a measurement depends on the measuring instrument as well as on the definition of the measurement. This philosophy, known as user-centered design, incorporates user concerns and advocacy from the beginning of the design process and dictates that the needs of the user should be that most important of any design decisions. 2. These plans include additional details and needed revisions based on prior plans that provided the basis for the current proposal and contract. The results of the case study or survey can normally be applicable only to a particular organization. The user should not be able to login with incorrect username and correct password. The different attributes that can be measured for each of the entities are as follows −, Processes are collections of software-related activities. Hence, measurement plays a significant role in software engineering. This tutorial provides a complete overview of Software Quality Management and describes the various steps involved in the process. Example: Examine the defects from the viewpoint of the customer. Registered lead auditors are required to have a demonstrated experience in conducting and directing TickIT audits. Invisible Product Difficult to detect defects by sight, Visible Product Effective detection of defects by sight, Nature of development and production process, can detect defects in all of the following phases. However, in the case of software, the only phase where defects can be detected is the development phase. Sampling is the process of selecting a set of data from a large population. It includes externally observable system performance characteristics such as response times and completion rates, and the internal working of the system such as the efficiency of algorithms. Software metrics is a standard of measure that contains many activities, which involves some degree of measurement. This depends on the experimental design, proper identification of factors likely to affect the outcome and appropriate measurement of factor attributes. If the ranking contains a large number of tied values, a chi-squared test on a contingency table can be used to test the association between the variables. It includes personnel, materials, tools and methods. Software reliability testing a testing technique that relates to testing a software's ability to function given environmental conditions consistently that helps uncover issues in the software design and functionality. How difficult is conversion and installation? The pattern of defect arrivals gives more information about different quality levels in the field. The measurement reflects the characteristics of the overall process and of the interaction among and across major activities. Only the managers and employees of the software testing department are occupied full time in the performance of SQA tasks. In an example library database system, the file that contains transactions in the library's billing system. The first is a customer measure; the second is a process measure. 1. These documents usually combine text, graph, and special mathematical diagrams and symbols. Similarly, models consisting of 12 to 15 factors, were suggested by Deutsch and Willis (1988) and by Evans and Marciniak (1987). In the software engineering context, software quality reflects both functional quality as well as structural quality. Project methodology, development tools, etc. Management of software development, maintenance and the specific SQA units, A software development and maintenance project team, Organization of SQA systems, infrastructure and requirements, Methodologies for carrying out software development and maintenance projects, Assuring the supplier’s software quality and assessing its software process capability. 1. If this count satisfies the above relationships, we can say that the lines of code are a valid measure of the length. Recommended for you Manage workloads 4. The systematic reuse of these components as building blocks to create new systems. Certification, which is granted after the periodic audits, will be valid only until the next audit, and therefore must be renewed. The classic model of software quality factors, suggested by McCall, consists of 11 factors (McCall et al., 1977). How are distributed data and processing functions handled? Weigh each GSC on a scale of 0 to 5 based on whether it has no influence to strong influence. Time required to get used to in using the software. Parameters involved in Reliability Testing: Dependent elements … Every measurement action must be motivated by a particular goal or need that is clearly defined and easily understandable. To perform the mapping, we have to specify domain, range as well as the rules to perform the mapping. Similarly, models consisting of 12 to 15 factors, were suggested by Deutsch and Willis (1988) and by Evans and Marciniak (1987). Usability Testing Process: Previous Page Print Page. Reusability • Software development process called frameworks that promotes reuse. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electro-technical standardization. Now in this paper I would like to cover important aspects of software reusability. All these functionalities need to be necessarily incorporated into the system as a part of the contract. It differs from hardware reliability in that it reflects the design … Safety-critical software is called reliable software. Environment − The environment consists of the following: process factors, people factors, problem factors, methods, tools, constraints, etc. This factor deals with the use of software modules originally designed for one project in a new software project currently being developed. Then we try to establish empirically predictive theories to support quality assurance, quality control, and quality prediction. The most intuitive reuse is in the reality of “plug-and-play” just like the hardware counterpart. In software engineering, a software design pattern is a general, reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem within a given context in software design.It is not a finished design that can be transformed directly into source or machine code.Rather, it is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. The assessment team produces a list of findings that identifies the strengths and weakness of the organization's software process. His tasks include professional hands-on and managerial tasks, particularly the following −, Preparation of project and quality plans and their updates, Participation in joint customer–supplier committee, Close follow-up of project team staffing, including attending to recruitment, training and instruction, Project managers address the follow-up issues such as −, Performance of review activities and the consequent corrections, Software development and maintenance unit’s performance, integration and system test activities as well as corrections and regression tests, Software installation in remote customer sites and the execution of the software system by the customer, SQA training and instruction of project team members, Schedules and resources allocated to project activities, Evolving project development risks, application of solutions and control of results. Software quality metrics are a subset of software metrics that focus on the quality aspects of the product, process, and project. The responsibilities include −, Review of trends that are expected to affect the organization’s software quality in the near future, Review proposals for SQA adaptations such as preparation of new procedures appropriate to the new tools and SQA standards, Preparation of training programs for veteran software development teams and newly recruited team members, Development of software quality metrics appropriate for evaluating the new tools and standards as well as the success of the training programs, Approval of the final version of the planned SQA development projects, including their schedules and budgets, The executive in-charge is responsible for −, General supervision of the annual activities program, Review of the progress of the SQA adaptation projects, General supervision of the actions taken to realize the quality achievements dictated by the teams’ objectives (based on periodic reports), Review of compliance with SQA procedures and standards based on internal quality audits, General follow-up of compliance to software development project schedules and budgets, General follow-up of provision of quality maintenance services to external and internal customers, In order to promote quality and resolve SQA system difficulties it requires −, Presentation for final approval of the proposed annual activities program and budget, Presentation for final approval of planned SQA adaptation projects together with the corresponding budgets, Initiation and leadership of periodic management review meetings dedicated to the organization’s software quality, Initiation of management-level discussions dedicated to special software quality events, such as severe quality failures, threats to the successful completion of projects due to severe professional staff shortages, managerial crises in the SQA unit, and so on, Middle management’s quality assurance responsibilities include −, Management of the software quality management system (quality system-related tasks), Management of tasks related to the projects and services performed by units or teams under the specific manager’s authority (project-related tasks), These include SQA activities to be performed on the department level −, Preparation of the department’s annual SQA activities program and budget, based on the recommended program prepared by the SQA unit, Preparation of the department’s SQA systems development plans, based on the recommended plan prepared by the SQA unit, Control of performance of the department’s annual SQA activities program and development projects, Presentation of the department’s SQA issues to top management, These vary according to the organization’s procedures and distribution of authority; they usually involve −, Control of compliance to quality assurance procedures in the department’s units, including CAB, SCM and SCCA bodies, Detailed follow-up of contract review results and proposal approvals, Review of unit performance of planned review activities; approval of project documents and project phase completion, Follow-up of software tests and test results; approval of project’s software products, Follow-up of progress of software development project schedules and budget deviations, Advice and support to project managers in resolving schedule, budget and customer relations difficulties, Follow-up of quality of maintenance services provision, Detailed follow-up of the project risks and their solutions, Follow-up of project’s compliance with customer requirements and customer’s satisfaction, Approval of large software change orders and significant deviations from project specifications. It covers the entire range of commercial software development and maintenance services. S.N. Addition and subtraction can be performed on this scale but not multiplication or division. In case of software, product production planning and manufacturing phases are not required as the manufacturing of software copies and the printing of software manuals are conducted automatically. Reliability requirements deal with service failure. Software Reliability is also an important factor affecting system reliability. These standards include the following −. For example: Weekly timesheet of the employees in an organization. A particular measurement will be useful only if it helps to understand the process or one of its resultant products. Goals and questions are to be constructed in terms of their audience. These quality models can be combined with productivity model for measuring the correct productivity. If we are developing a user authentication feature, then the following can be few key test scenarios, which needs to get passed in order to call it a success. The software should be possible to continue using the same basic software in diverse situations. 17-49, Ellis-Horwood, New York, 1994. It ensures that what is built is what is delivered. Hence, contract review activities must include a detailed examination of the project proposal draft and the contract drafts. The investigation must be designed to explore the truth of a theory. It preserves order like the ordinal scale. Suppose we are currently using FORTRAN which we want to replace by Ada. The required accuracy of output that can be negatively affected by inaccurate data or inaccurate calculations. It includes −. ISO 9001 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 176, Quality management and quality assurance, Subcommittee SC 2, Quality systems. Let us now understand how to apply the Albrecht’s Function Point method. The team must consist of between four to ten team members. This body also defines the tasks of the ad hoc committee. This factor deals with the use of software modules originally designed for one project in a new software project currently being developed. 3. A second-party assessment is performed by an external assessment team or the organization is assessed by a customer. Similarly, height and size measurements will ensure whether the cloth will fit properly or not. There are two reasons for the different results. The structure of requirements, design, and code helps understand the difficulty that arises in converting one product to another, in testing a product, or in predicting the external software attributes from early internal product measures. This metric includes −. Measurement scales are the mappings used for representing the empirical relation system. It deals with the hardware resources needed to perform the different functions of the software system. Even in what appears to be the same organization, the sample of projects selected to represent the organization may affect the scope and outcome. In an example library database system, display a list of books checked out to a patron. The SQA components used during the operation–maintenance phase include specialized maintenance components as well as development life cycle components, which are applied mainly for functionality to improve the maintenance tasks. In object oriented programming protected data members are accessible in the child and so we can say that yes inheritance promote software re-usability. the (process, product, model, metric, etc.) Software Reliability is hard to achieve because the complexity of software turn to be high. If we have a high level of control over the variables that can affect the outcome, then we can use an experiment. Does the application have extensive logical or mathematical processing? Following points prove the efficiency of these techniques to answer a variety of questions. If the data is from a normal distribution and there are two groups to compare then, the student’s t test can be used for analysis. are copied and adapted to fit new requirements. Publication of the TickIT Guide, which supports the software industry’s efforts to spread ISO 9001 certification. It places the elements in a classification scheme. On this scale, there will be only one possible measure for an attribute. This International Standard promotes the adoption of a process approach when developing, implementing, and improving the effectiveness of a quality management system, to enhance customer satisfaction by meeting the customer requirements. These are user identifiable groups of logically related data that are used for reference purposes only, and which reside entirely outside the system. For the Love of Physics - Walter Lewin - May 16, 2011 - Duration: 1:01:26. TickIT, now managed and maintained by the DISC Department of BSI (the British Standards Institute), is accredited for the certification of IT organizations in the UK and Sweden. At this level, the feedback from the early project activities can be used to set priorities for the current activities and later for the project activities. For allocating the appropriate resources to the project, we need to predict the effort, time, and cost for developing the project. Software Engineering involves managing, costing, planning, modeling, analyzing, specifying, designing, implementing, testing, and maintaining software products. Different code libraries classes should be generic enough to use easily in different application modules. Interoperability requirements focus on creating interfaces with other software systems or with other equipment firmware. 2. Survey is the retrospective study of a situation to document relationships and outcomes. Was the application specifically designed, developed, and supported to facilitate change? Attributes are mostly defined by numbers or symbols. $$DRE = \frac{Defect \: removed \: during \: a \: development\:phase }{Defects\: latent \: in \: the\: product} \times 100\%$$. They include −. Measurement tells us the rules laying the ground work for developing and reasoning about all kinds of measurement. They may also enable future projects to make use of a given module or a group of modules of the currently developed software. − Data can be considered as consistent, if it doesn’t show a major difference from one measuring device to another. Global flow − If information flows from one module to another through a global data structure. Examples include the number of software developers, the staffing pattern over the life cycle of the software, cost, schedule, and productivity. Complexity − Complexity is of different types, such as. This scale captures the information about the size of the intervals that separate the classification. Let's explore this in detail. They include −. How many ILFs are updated by online transaction? Rather than checking for quality after completion, SQA processes test for quality in each phase of development, until the software is complete. Normally, an industrial product allows only less than a few thousand modes of operation with different combinations of its machine settings. Functionality − It describes the functions supplied by the product to the user. How frequently are transactions executed daily, weekly, monthly, etc.? Examples of stochastic prediction systems are systems such as software cost estimation, effort estimation, schedule estimation, etc. The main objective of these components, which is applied throughout the entire organization, is to eliminate or at least reduce the rate of errors, based on the organization’s accumulated SQA experience. Then, the complexity of the given problem is big - O of the asymptotically optimal algorithm for the problem’s solution. At this level, intermediate activities are defined, and their inputs and outputs are known and understood. The standards for coding and documenting the software system. The project managers often turn the predictions into targets for completion. Software reuse can cut software development time and costs. • Systematic software reuse is still the most promising strategy for increasing productivity and improving quality in the software industry. The application of a system of processes within an organization, together with the identification and interactions of these processes, and their management to produce the desired outcome, can be referred to as the “process approach”.

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