If you are fighting acne and have looked into oral supplements, chances are that zinc gluconate sounds familiar to you. Only 3 left. Buy It Now. Hello Ladies, I love the Neutrogena Norwegian Formula Body Moisturizer that I reviewed on IMBB earlier. Neutrogena Intensive Moisture Wrap Body Treatment Neutrogena Intensive Moisture Wrap Body Treatment delivers clinical strength to relieve extremely dry skin, especially during the wintertime. Just like mineral oil, it is also a by-product of refining crude oil, aka petroleum, and it is also a mixture of hydrocarbons but with bigger (C18-90+) carbon chain length.The unique thing about petrolatum is that it is the most effective occlusive agent known today. The gluconate part is there to promote the bioavailability of copper and it also plays a role in cellular regeneration (involved in the synthesis of ribose sugars, structural components of DNA and RNA). A copper salt that is known to promote cellular regeneration and also has some antioxidant and tan-activating properties. 91 sold. Please refer to the ingredients list on the product packaging for the most accurate list of ingredients. The eleventh product of Neutrogena that I am going to review is Neutrogena® Body Emulsion Fragrance Free of Norwegian Formula Line. Contains Sun Protection. It's free of harmful alcohols, allergens, gluten, sulfates and synthetic fragrances. Choose your preferred country & currency below to personalize your experience. Overall, it is the gold-standard occlusive agent known today and a tub of Vaseline comes in handy in any household to heal cracked lips or other severely dry skin patches. It also occurs naturally in our body and is used as a food additive. This distinctive concentrated formula is glycerin-rich to instantly wrap skin in encouraging moisture to soothe and smooth uneasy, problem dry skin. It does not begin to compare with the Body Emulsion. Even though it is a highly controversial ingredient, the scientific consensus is that it is a safe, non-irritating and effective emollient and moisturizer working mainly by occlusivity. A body lotion that helps improve skin's suppleness and elasticity in just 10 days by combining intense hydration with collagen boosting minerals, which help boost the skin's own collagen production. is drying. Though its long name does not reveal it, this polymer molecule (big molecule from repeated subunits or monomers) is a relative to the super common, water-loving thickener, Carbomer. C … Both of them are big molecules that contain acrylic acid units, but Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer also contains some other monomers that are hydrophobic, i.e. But we have found comedogenic components, fungal acne feeding components, parabens, silicones and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Neutrogena Body Emulsion Posted on 30/12/2013 by snigdhajoshi12 has recruited a team of technology scouts on a single mission: to scan the globe in search of time-tested solutions and ingredients from natural sources. It is important to be familiar with the ingredients in the products you use on your body, particularly if you have a skin condition. See the … Get in touch! Thanks. It's also a very popular ingredient in shaving foams. My skin is normal to oily and I love lotion that is… Brand New. Neutrogena Hydro Boost Body Gel Cream contains 17 ingredients. Not penetrating the skin but mostly just sitting on top of it and not containing biologically active components, like nice fatty acids and vitamins mean that mineral oil does not "nourish" the skin in the way plant oils do. The cons of mineral oil It can be used in many types of formulations as it has great thermal stability (can be heated up to 85°C) and works on a wide range of pH levels (ph 3-10). A clear, colorless emollient ester (oily liquid) that makes the skin nice and smooth. It is a very controversial ingredient with pros and cons and plenty of myths around it. It's free of harmful alcohols, allergens, gluten, sulfates, parabens and polyethylene glycol (PEG). However, if you do not like its origin or its heavy feeling or anything else about it, avoiding it has never been easier. It also stimulates antioxidant enzyme systems (mainly superoxide dismutase) and has nice wound healing abilities acting mainly in the first, proliferation phase. Once inside the skin, it hydrates, but not from the outside - putting pure water on the skin (hello long baths!) A natural moisturizer that’s also in our skin, A super common, safe, effective and cheap molecule used for more than 50 years, Not only a simple moisturizer but knows much more: keeps the skin lipids between our skin cells in a healthy (liquid crystal) state, protects against irritation, helps to restore barrier, Effective from as low as 3% with even more benefits at higher concentrations up to 20-40% (around 10% is a good usability-effectiveness sweet spot), High-glycerin moisturizers are awesome for treating severely dry skin. Ingredientes dos veces más hidratantes que el resto de la línea BODY CARE ®. or Just want to chat? what's the deal with alcohol in skincare products at alcohol denat. (it's also alcohol, but with some additives to make sure no one drinks it). 84 ($1.39/Fl Oz) Get it as soon as Wed, Oct 28. Probably the most common silicone of all. Made with from around the world. Whether you have dry skin or normal skin, NEUTROGENA® has the perfect body lotions and moisturizers for your skin concerns. New Neutrogena Body Emulsion Daily Relief Lotion 310ml 10.5oz BRAND NEW SEALED. It’s mainly a solvent for ingredients that do not like to dissolve in oils but rather in water. For example, in case of AHA or BHA exfoliants, the right pH is super-duper important, and pH adjusters like sodium hydroxide are needed. The other thing that mineral oil is really good at is being non-irritating to the skin. Normal (well kind of - it's purified and deionized) water. Spotted a bug? Size Type. It's also a texturizer and thickener for oil-in-water emulsions. Recomendado para pieles secas y extra secas. Read what notable effects these ingredients have with Skincarisma” New Neutrogena Body Emulsion Daily Relief Lotion 310ml 10.5oz BRAND NEW SEALED. ", Another super common myth surrounding mineral oil is that it is comedogenic. ($8.40 - $75.00) Find great deals on the latest styles of Neutrogena body emulsion intensive therapeutic lotion. A copper salt (copper cation + gluconate anion) probably best known for promoting cellular regeneration and wound healing. Free postage. A very common water-loving surfactant and emulsifier that helps to keep water and oil mixed nicely together. FREE Shipping on your first order shipped by Amazon. Nevertheless, some people find dyes to be irritating—you might want to patch test the water gel before slapping it onto your beautiful face. It’s safe and gentle, but even more importantly, it’s not a feared-by-everyone-mostly-without-scientific-reason paraben. What is more, in terms of the general health effects of mineral oils used in cosmetics, a 2017 study reviewed the data on their skin penetration and concluded that "the cosmetic use of mineral oils and waxes does not present a risk to consumers due to a lack of systemic exposure. It’s safe and gentle, and can be used up to 1% worldwide. It was already used by ancient Egyptians to help oil and fat magically turn into something else. Have suggestions, comments? Please try again later! A commonly used water-soluble surfactant and emulsifier. Mineral oil does not give the skin any extra goodness, it is simply a non-irritating moisturizer working mainly by occlusivity. It’s definitely a smart thing to avoid with sensitive skin (and fragrance of any type - natural is just as allergic as synthetic, if not worse!). Product Size (width ~ depth ~ height): 6.2 ~ 5.1 ~ 20.3cm. It also gives a "pleasing product aesthetics", so no wonder it's popular. This is no coincidence. There is no evidence whatsoever that cosmetic, USP grade petrolatum is carcinogenic. Chemically speaking, cosmetic grade mineral oil is a complex mixture of highly refined saturated hydrocarbons with C15-50 chain length. Amazon's Choice for Neutrogena Body Emulsion. or can’t find what you’re looking for? Simple alcohol that's a great solvent, penetration enhancer, creates cosmetically elegant, light formulas, great astringent, and antimicrobial. Body Emulsion is the moisturizing alternative that continues to work when most lotions will not. The chemical composition of plant oils is more complex with many more possible allergens or irritating components, while mineral oil is simple, pure and sensitivity to it is extremely rare. This unique concentrated formula provides soothing moisture for dry skin. A common multi-tasker fatty acid. The myths around mineral oil Choose from clinically proven Norwegian Formula® products that deeply moisturize hands, body and feet from Neutrogena®. £20.04. Can you guess what? While Neutrogena ® strives to keep ingredient lists on this website as accurate as possible, we cannot guarantee that these lists are complete, reliable, up-to-date, and error-free. La crema corporal NEUTROGENA ® BODY CARE ® Intensive Extra Care reestablece la piel extra seca, reponiendo sus niveles esenciales de humectación. It works mainly in the final healing phase that complements nicely with the wound healing abilities of its mineral salt sister, zinc gluconate. Brand New. Neutrogena Norwegian Formula Dry Body Lotion 250 ml. If you are someone who likes to know what you put on your face then fragrance is not your best friend - there's no way to know what’s really in it. Or, you can go with the gel-cream and avoid any potential hiccups. £20.16. This means that copper has some tan activating properties, though we think you should not be into tanning at all, as UV is so bad for the skin. A clear, colorless emollient ester (oily liquid from isopropyl alcohol + palmitic acid) that makes the skin nice and smooth. Simply alcohol refers to ethanol and it's a pretty controversial ingredient. It's also a texturizer and thickener for oil-in-water emulsions. If you wanna know more, we wrote a more detailed explanation about what's the deal with alcohol in skincare products at alcohol denat. The clear oily liquid that is the "cheap by-product" of refining crude oil and the one that gets a lot of heat for its poor provenance. It’s a solid white stuff that’s very alkaline and used in small amounts to adjust the pH of the product and make it just right. The most common skincare ingredient of all. Pamper your skin with NEUTROGENA NORWEGIAN FORMULA Body Emulsion. As for hair care, it is a non-volatile silicone meaning that it stays on the hair rather than evaporates from it and smoothes the hair like no other thing. It helps to soften scars and increase their elasticity. Side eye: I’m pretty sure Neutrogena added dyes to compete with Laneige’s ever-famous sleeping mask. Have some feedback? Johnson & Johnson is the biggest company which producing beauty products. Popular Ingredients, Product Ingredient Safety Breakdown (EWG Rating Ratings), Bio-Cream Bio-Restorative Skin Cream with PSP, Shimmer Effect After Sun Moisturizer with Mica Minerals Coconut Papaya, Moisture Wrap Body Lotion Norwegian Formula, Oil-Free Acne Wash Pink Grapefruit Facial Cleanser, Neutrogena Visibly Clear 2 in 1 Wash and Mask, Canada Healthy Skin Anti-Wrinkle Cream Original Formula, Intensive Moisture Wrap Body Treatment Norwegian Formula Fragrance Free. They are good friends because ethylhexylglycerin can boost the effectiveness of phenoxyethanol (and other preservatives) and as an added bonus it feels nice on the skin too. Buy Neutrogena Body Facial Moisturisers and get the best deals at the lowest prices on eBay! $11.84 $ 11. We do a Best of INCIDecoder email once a month with the most interesting products and ingredients we bump into. Water (eau), glycerin, caprylic/capric triglyceride, dimethicone, cetyl alcohol, petrolatum, octyldodecanol, stearic acid, ... A few months ago, I switched to Nivea Crème Soft soap to wash my hands and I apply the Neutrogena Body Emulsion immediately after every wash. Neutrogena Oil-free Moisture Combination Skin contains 18 ingredients. Just like mineral oil, it is also a by-product of refining crude oil, aka petroleum, and it is also a mixture of hydrocarbons but with bigger (C18-90+) carbon chain length. It is a polymer (created from repeating subunits) molecule and has different molecular weight and thus different viscosity versions from water-light to thick liquid. It makes your skin feel nice and smooth (emollient), stabilizes oil-water mixes and gives body to them.Oh, and one more thing: Waxy, white, solid stuff that helps water and oil to mix together and leaves the skin feeling soft and smooth. “Find the full list of ingredients of Neutrogena Intensive Moisture Wrap Body Treatment Norwegian Formula Fragrance Free here! It is formulated to not leave residue and does not leave a sticky feeling on your body. C $34.16. A common multi-tasker fatty acid that works as an emollient, thickener and emulsion stabilizer. It also forms a protective barrier on the skin and fills in fine lines. A clear, oily liquid that comes from refining crude oil. It can be produced from most vegetable oils (in oils three fatty acid molecules are attached to glycerin instead of just one like here) in a pretty simple, "green" process that is similar to soap making. I am trying quite a few Neutrogena products these days. For dry and super-sensitive skin types it is a great option. The famous Vaseline or Petroleum Jelly. It has very good spreading properties and gives a silky touch to the products. Yes, it’s soap. They have such great products for skin care. ... Neutrogena Gender: Unisex Features: All Natural Ingredients. It can make the skin feel nice and smooth in moisturizers (emollient) or it can act as a foam building cleansing agent in cleansers. Pretty much the current IT-preservative. As cosmetic chemist Colins writes it, "its safety really is beyond any doubt". The famous or maybe rather infamous mineral oil. Buy NEUTROGENA® Norwegian FORMULA® Body Emulsion Concentrated Lotion from Walmart Canada. see all. Ammonium Acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP Copolymer, Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer, Ammonium Acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP Copolymer, Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer, Read all the geeky details about Glycerin here >>. Read what notable effects these ingredients have with Skincarisma” Great natural moisturizer and skin-identical ingredient that plays an important role in skin hydration and general skin health. And Neutrogena is the thrid brand I bought according to alphabetical. It is often mixed with fellow fatty alcohol, Cetyl Alcohol, and the mixture is called Cetearyl Alcohol in the ingredient list. It’s often used together with ethylhexylglycerin as it nicely improves the preservative activity of phenoxyethanol. As for smearing zinc gluconate all over your face, it is also not a bad idea. Chemically speaking, it is the attachment of a glycerin molecule to the fatty acid called stearic acid. Top Rated Seller. Occlusivity is one of the basic mechanisms of how moisturizers work and it means that mineral oil sits on top of the skin and hinders so-called trans-epidermal water loss, i.e water evaporating out of your skin. It also has a long history of safe use, as it was first used as a skincare product more than 100 years ago, in 1872 to be precise. Its glycerin-rich formula leaves problem dry skin softer, smoother, protected and instantly revitalized. It’s the number one cause of contact allergy to cosmetics. The study concluded that "based on the animal and human data reported, along with the AAD recommendation, it would appear reasonable to conclude that mineral oil is noncomedogenic in humans.". It makes your skin feel nice and smooth (emollient), stabilizes oil-water mixes and gives body to them. While it is true that industrial grade mineral oil contains carcinogenic components (so-called polycyclic compounds), these are completely removed from cosmetic and food grade mineral oil and there is no scientific data showing that the pure, cosmetic grade version is carcinogenic. While the occlusivity of mineral oil is in the same league as the occlusivity of plant oils, petrolatum is in a league of its own. Badmouthing mineral oil is a favorite sport of many, it is a cheap material and being connected to petrolatum makes it fairly easy to demonize. In large amount can be very drying. It has many instant benefits: it's a great solvent, penetration enhancer, creates cosmetically elegant, light formulas, great astringent and antimicrobial. It’s not something new: it was introduced around 1950 and today it can be used up to 1% worldwide. It works over a wide pH range and is used between 0.5-1.2%. More Buying Choices $1.00 (9 new offers) A kind of polymer (big molecule from repeated subunits) that helps to create beautiful gel-like textures. From Korea, ... New Neutrogena Body Emulsion Daily Relief Lotion 310ml 10.5oz BRAND NEW SEALED. Fragrance in the US and parfum in the EU is a generic term on the ingredient list that is made up of 30 to 50 chemicals on average (but it can have as much as 200 components!). When compared to heavy-duty plant oil, extra virgin coconut oil, the two of them were equally efficient and safe as moisturizers in treating xerosis, a skin condition connected to very dry skin. Lighter than a cream, it’s comfy for all-over daytime use and will not leave your skin feeling greasy. Depending on your hair type, it can be a bit difficult to wash out and might cause some build-up (btw, this is not true to all silicones, only the non-volatile types). Body Filter applied. Trust us, if something is used for more than 100 years in cosmetic products, it has advantages. see all. Neutrogena protects your skin and keeps it well-hydrated. Browse products by BIONIKE Triderm Body Emulsion Sensitive And Intolerant Skin 200 ml. It’s pretty much the current IT-preservative. Descubre los mejores productos y consejos para el cuidado de tu tipo de piel de la mano de NEUTROGENA®, marca desarrollada con dermatólogos. A handy multi-tasker, white to light yellowish oil-loving wax that works very well in oil-in-water emulsions. What about the gluconate part? See 46 member reviews and photos. Ingredients. Free shipping. Beneficios. Shop from a selection of body moisturizers - body lotions, washes & oils - to help hydrate your skin with Neutrogena®, the #1 dermatologist recommended skincare brand. This means that our molecule is part water- and part oil-loving, so it not only works as a thickener but also as an emulsion stabilizer. Super common little helper ingredient that helps products to remain nice and stable for a longer time. Good old water, aka H2O. But we have found comedogenic components, fungal acne feeding components, silicones and synthetic fragrances. £19.47. Emulsion Filter applied. examined this very question and guess what happened? Familiar skin is well, just to be wearing clothing such comfortable to use. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Neutrogena Norwegian Formula Body Emulsion Lotion (155ml / 310ml) at the best online prices at eBay! Other than that, copper is also involved in several enzyme systems: it is a cofactor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase and also a cofactor for the melanin stimulating enzyme, tyrosinase. A super common, waxy, white, solid stuff that helps water and oil to mix together, gives body to creams and leaves the skin feeling soft and smooth. Formulation. Mineral oil has such a bad reputation nowadays that cosmetic companies hardly dare to use it anymore. So let us see them: The pros of mineral oil The famous Vaseline or Petroleum Jelly. Other than having a good safety profile and being quite gentle to the skin it has some other advantages too. It is very common in gel-type formulas that also contain an oil-phase as well as in cleansers as it also works with most cleansing agents (unlike a lot of other thickeners). Sodium hydroxide in itself is a potent skin irritant, but once it's reacted (as it is usually in skin care products, like exfoliants) it is totally harmless. As for skincare, it can make the skin feel nice and smooth in moisturizers (emollient) or it can act as a foam building cleansing agent in cleansers. No wonder it's popular in toners and oily skin formulas. I have used Neutrogena Body Emulsion for many years and after it was discontinued, I tried the "replacement moisture wrap" product but was extremely disappointed in the way it feels and the new fragrance. It makes your skin feel nice and smooth (emollient), gives body to cream type products and helps to stabilize water and oil mixes (aka emulsions). There are also scar treatment gels out there using dimethicone as their base ingredient. Also, works well to fill in fine lines and wrinkles and give skin a plump look (of course that is only temporary, but still, it's nice). water-hating. 0 S N H P 9 R O O N S O R E D H 3 8 N [Neutrogena] 2pcs Body Emulsion Daily Relief Lotion 310ml. If you check out the classic French pharmacy brands and their moisturizers for the most sensitive, allergy prone skin, they usually contain mineral oil. Shop for more Body Lotions & Creams available online at Walmart.ca No deja la piel oleosa y es de rápida absorción. Lye - A solid white stuff that’s very alkaline and used in small amount to adjust the pH of the product. A kind of polymer (big molecule from repeated subunits) that helps to create beautiful gel-like textures. ... All Natural Ingredients. You can usually find it right in the very first spot of the ingredient list, meaning it’s the biggest thing out of all the stuff that makes up the product. A common helper ingredient that stabilizes emulsions and helps to thicken up products. A zinc salt known for its soothing and wound healing properties as well as for its anti-acne properties. In fact, it's the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals and plants. Super common little helper ingredient that helps products to remain nice and stable for a longer time. BTW, lye is not something new. The unfancy name for it is lye. Exactly what it sounds: nice smelling stuff put into cosmetic products so that the end product also smells nice. Zinc has multiple magic abilities: it is antibacterial (including evil, acne-causing P. acnes) and sebum-regulating (5α-reductase inhibitor), great for acne-prone skin types. It gives products a good skin feel and does not make the formula tacky or sticky. We don't have description for this ingredient yet. A 2005 study titled "Is mineral oil comedogenic?" The generic term for nice smelling stuff put into cosmetic products so that the end product also smells nice. Neutrogena Norwegian Formula Body Emulsion Review. It is there to promote the absorption and bioavailability of zinc and also plays a role in cellular regeneration (involved in the synthesis of ribose sugars, structural components of DNA and RNA). This comes in handy healing cracked lips or severely dry skin patches, though overdoing it (i.e. A real oldie but a goodie. 4.6 out of 5 stars 259. It is a zinc salt that has research proving it to be effective against inflammatory acne, though not quite as effective as the antibiotic minocycline (31.2% vs. 63.4% success rate). Some experts even think that regular exposure to alcohol damages skin barrier and causes inflammation though it's a debated opinion. Neutrogena Visibly Renew Body Lotion ingredients explained: Aqua, Glycerin, Paraffinum Liquidum, ... white to light yellowish oil-loving wax that works very well in oil-in-water emulsions. Compare prices & save money on Skin Care Products. It does so by neutralizing the metal ions in the formula (that usually get into there from water) that would otherwise cause some not so nice changes. It still often shows up in the ingredient list of soaps and other cleansers. It is not merely a "by-product" but rather a specifically isolated part of petroleum that is very pure and inert. Want to see a feature? Overall, we feel that the scaremongering around mineral oil is not justified. They Have Different Ingredients Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Neutrogena (Neutrogena) Norwegian Formula Intense repair body emulsion ultra-dry at the best … It can boost the effectiveness of phenoxyethanol (and other preservatives) and as an added bonus it feels nice on the skin too. It is made up of 30 to 50 chemicals on average. It is typically used in tiny amounts, around 0.1% or even less. This concentrated formula contains a unique glycerin-rich complex that instantly wraps skin in comforting moisture and penetrates to heal even the driest skin from both the inside and out. Also, if your skin is sensitive, fragrance is again not your best friend. An error has occurred. It also does not absorb into the skin but sits on top of it and that in itself greatly minimises health risks. Neutrogena Norwegian Formula Body Cream Lotion450ml for Body Dry Skin Health. As for skincare, it makes the skin silky smooth, creates a subtle gloss and forms a protective barrier (aka occlusive). It is a great emollient and moisturizer working mainly by occlusivity. The community where skincare Target Area. So great for skin types in need of healing and soothing. However, zinc supplements are easily available, have little-to-no side effects, so supplementing them with a 30mg per day dose can still be a good idea. Like this, the products can stay more stable over time. 24 horas de humectación. Also, it's an effective deodorant and a medium spreading emollient. A very common silicone that gives both skin and hair a silky smooth feel. Oh, and one more thing: it's a so-called fatty alcohol - the good, emollient type of alcohol that is non-drying and non-irritating. It's readily biodegradable. The pros of mineral oil can be interpreted as cons if we look at them from another perspective. It can be found in nature - in green tea - but the version used in cosmetics is synthetic. A fatty acid that can be found naturally in the skin. It's often paired with glyceryl stearate - the two together form a super effective emulsifier duo that's salt and acid tolerant and works over a wide pH range. 152 matches. :) You are almost done: please check your mailbox to confirm your email! It does so by neutralizing the metal ions in the formula (that usually get into there from water) that would otherwise cause some not so nice changes. As for petrolatum and safety, we can write here pretty much the exact same thing as we have written at mineral oil. enthuasists come make better decisions. “Find the full list of ingredients of Neutrogena Norwegian Formula Deep Moisture Comfort Balm here! The unique thing about petrolatum is that it is the most effective occlusive agent known today. Neutrogena Norwegian Formula Body Emulsion: rated 4 out of 5 on MakeupAlley. If you have spotted ethylhexylglycerin on the ingredient list, most probably you will see there also the current IT-preservative, phenoxyethanol. It sits on top of the skin and hinders so-called transepidermal water loss (TEWL) like nothing else. A fatty acid that can be found naturally in the skin. Support SkinCarisma by shopping from our trusted partnered retailers below. reducing TEWL by more than 40%) is not good as it can create a nice moist place for fungi and bacteria to grow. Usually the main solvent in cosmetic products. The downside is that it can be very drying if it's in the first few ingredients on an ingredient list. One more thing: the water used in cosmetics is purified and deionized (it means that almost all of the mineral ions inside it is removed). A handy multi-tasker, white to light yellowish oil-loving wax that works very well in oil-in-water emulsions. From Korea, South. It makes your skin feel nice and smooth ... A common helper ingredient that stabilizes emulsions … It is also non-comedogenic, though its pure form is very heavy and greasy so combination and oily skin types might want to avoid it anyway. Also used for scar treatment.
How Many Exoplanets Are There In The Milky Way, Patons Chunky Yarn, Infrastructure Development Definition Ap Human Geography, Caring For Geraniums In Summer, I Have A Dream Chords Tangled, Andrew Ng Machine Learning Pdf, Jeff Davis County Coronavirus, Blackstone Adventure Ready 28, 20th Century Fox Text Font, Reverend Charger Gunmetal, Types Of Eucalyptus Leaves For Bouquets,