Q�{�Q���y�z���N�t��.�_��_�.`~G+��)}=j�8L�:)�M7���"�bJ�0y�d��{� Zg�ut׭�4�6��������*F�4��SD����,vu��:JX%��M'e�oK��K~��=t�x0�HJ����wYL�jď�Oc�7M�CP�(C�g�4a Two focus group discussions were conducted for designing the research questionnaires. Herbal Medicines: Personal Use, Knowledge, Attitude, Dispensing Practice, and the Barriers among Community Pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia Dessalegn Asmelashe Gelayee, Gashaw Binega Mekonnen, Seyfe Asrade Atnafe, Mequanent Kassa Birarra, Assefa Belay Asrie. ?n de lentes de contacto multifocales en Mumbai, India. Harris, J.E. Practitioners who regularly dispensed MFCL reported that professional satisfaction (88%) and better business proposition (82%) were their main motivators in prescribing these lenses (Fig. The Poison’s Act 1952 and the PHFSA 1998 and Regulations P.U. Patients with inadequate literacy and/or health literacy skills are the most likely to have difficulties in understanding proper drug use. Limited knowledge on and access to information regarding herbal medicines are the main barriers to the pharmacists' practice. To enhance the MFCL practice, barriers like lack of awareness and limitations in power range must be addressed. The following are the supplementary data to this article: Are you a health professional able to prescribe or dispense drugs? Para mejorar la práctica de las MFCL, deben abordarse las barreras tales como la falta de concienciación y las limitaciones del rango de potencia. <>>> The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. <> It was also thought that unavailability of an ideal MFCL leading to compromised visual performance will make the patients dissatisfied, however according to this study practitioners did not think it to be a significant barrier from patient's perspective. Majority of the respondents had good knowledge and good practice on dispensing ECP and possessed a positive attitude towards the use of ECP. Responses from survey A: (A) lack of motivation, (B) unsatisfactory vision with multifocal contact lenses, (C) lack of awareness and (D) expensive. x��W�n9}7���Lˢ�Z�M\Թ�mQ�x�l��&��Kj4�o�8�Y�)��������d0���Z�@q���o���p G�n��QH�o���?/Ҕ�Jh��ݎ�~w;_(����ngD�0� Vv¦�j�6��� P%�O8T{:4Zx���n�(�F�Rg M���u���,�Zg���:4g`k�*@�1�k[�ݘʹ+�D�`= Sheedy, M.R. • Draft Good Dispensing Practice Guidelines(PSD)/2015 . When this study was conducted, presbyopic lenses from only two multinational companies (B&L and J&J) were available to the practitioners. 102 (77%) out of 133 ECPs successfully completed the survey. Further probing is required to understand lack of motivation among experienced practitioners. where11: Possibility of patients losing faith in the practitioner was considered to be a barrier; on the contrary, in our study patient loyalty and increased referrals were found to be motivators. DISPENSING Dispensing is an important part of the practice of pharmacy, in which the dispenser interprets the physician's requirements on the prescription and accordingly supplies medicines for the treatment of his patient (s). In 1957, DeCarle in London developed simultaneous-vision bifocal CLs that were free from the problem of rotation, which became the basis for current bifocal CL (DeCarle, 1989). Dichos cuestionarios fueron distribuidos entre 133 profesionales de cuidados oculares en Mumbai, India. J.E. The degree of Bachelors in optometry is granted after four years of training. Today's presbyopes, especially in the metropolitan cities are observed to be leading an active and diverse lifestyle. Harris, M.R. Dispensing of MFCLs in India can be enhanced by addressing major barriers such as limitations in power range and lack of awareness of availability of these lenses among CL wearers. This will not only help boost the confidence of the practitioners but will also help in reducing the extra chair time which is considered as one of the major barriers by practitioners. In the latter half of the 1980s to the 1990s, nonspherical progressive MFCL (Stein, 1990) and diffraction CL (Freeman and Stone, 1987) were developed, and a large number of bifocal CLs were made. This Guidelines are consistent with existing laws and regulations and also in line with the Guidelines for Good Medical Practice of the Malaysian Medical Council. Spanish General Council of Optometry, Journal of Optometry is a member and subscribes the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), © Copyright 2020. 6 0 obj All the discussed points covering the barriers, motivators and enablers were rated by the two groups from being the most common and relevant to the least common and relevant points responsible for the limitation in dispensing MFCL. All the discussed points covering the barriers, motivators and enablers were rated by the two groups from being the most common and relevant to the least common and relevant points responsible for the limitation in dispensing MFCL. This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes and practices of community pharmacists regarding their participation in public health activities and barriers to their … In an earlier study Morgan et al. Perhaps one of the biggest barriers to reflection is you! Usual common causes of mistakes to the reported extent are lack of concentration (90%), similarity in the drug name (51%), inexperience/lack of knowledge (16%), misreading medication order (8%) and wrong assumption (5%). This dispensing pattern is similar to another study conducted in Tamil Nadu, India, where 58% of the pharmacists dispensed drugs without prescription but better than practices in other countries such as Egypt (72%), Tanzania (77%), and Vietnam (99%) where higher rates of dispensing without prescriptions were documented. The J Optom welcomes the submission of original manuscripts and reviews describing clinical and experimental research in the field of Optometry, Ophthalmic Optics, Ocular Surface and Basic and Applied Visual Science in general; research on Instruments and Techniques, Reports of Clinical Cases, and clinically relevant laboratory investigations are also welcomed. Most common potential barriers in prescribing MFCL were increased chair time (75%), lack of readily available trials (69%) and limitation in power range (63%). Mook. guide to good hygiene practice vending and dispensing language en summary dispensing dispensing ... other areas of good practice referred to in the retail guide include temperature control display of open foods pest control and the principles behind hazard analysis the use of the guide is optional however 3. You are strongly advised to observe them on each occasion you dispense a prescription. main barriers were lack of knowledge, limited access of information,andunregulatedsaleofthepreparationsinthe nation. The difference in the mean was tested using unpaired t-test and difference in the proportions was tested using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test (for low expected cell counts). It is an open access journal. To ensure the consistent quality of products, you build quality directly into your processes and into your way of thinking and working. Audience of J Optom includes Optometrists, Ophthalmologists and Visual Scientists as well as undergraduate and post-graduate students in these fields. We also wanted to identify the motivators and enablers from the practitioners who have been successfully dispensing these lenses and the impact of factors like, years of experience, type of practice and different optometry training levels contributing to the prescribing of these lenses. Bronge, S.M. The majority of practitioners reported that lack of awareness (90%) was the major barrier from patient's perspective, while cost was the secondary barrier (48%) (Fig. Contact lens prescribing pattern in India—2011. Experienced practitioners were observed to be least motivated (p=0.01) and believed that their patients found these lenses expensive (p=0.02). SNIP measures contextual citation impact by wighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 47 community pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, using a structured interviewing questionnaire.Results. Responses from survey B: (A) multiple sales and good business proposition, (B) achievement of professional satisfaction, (C) increase in patient loyalty and (D) increase in patient referrals. 5 0 obj dispensing environment and medicines stock management. Currently there are very few MFCL options available in India. This will help in better management of the presbyopic lens wearing population in India. Within each issue, all abstracts will be translated into Spanish by the Editorial Office. Community pharmacists have an opportunity to optimize medication use and improve patient outcomes. Nearly half of the respondents (, 46.8%) … ��nQ�ˣ1�qiC4Oe7�ؒ Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low astigmatic presbyopia. Journal of Optometry The Journal of Optometry (J Optom) is the scientific double blind peer-reviewed publication of the Spanish General Council of Optometrists (www.cgcoo.es). endstream Medical supply: means any article that may be used on the inner or outer part of the body for diagnosis or treatment of disease in man or animal. Is binocular contrast sensitivity at distance compromised with multifocal soft contact lenses used to correct presbyopia?. stream hypothesized that psychological factors, like, the lack of product awareness, fitting skills, technical know-how and confidence among practitioners could be the primary barriers in fitting MFCL.11 While these barriers featured in our study, they were not found to be the most significant ones. As about 62% of the practitioners showed least or neutral response in the level of motivation toward dispensing MFCL, increasing the level of self-motivation of the practitioner is very important for dispensing these lenses as that will positively influence their recommendation to the patient. Further research and probing are required to understand lack of motivation among experienced practitioners. To understand the potential barriers, motivators and enablers in dispensing multifocal contact lenses (MFCL). Task and visual performance with concentric bifocal contact lenses. An almost equal number of respondents completed each survey, 51% of ECPs completed survey A while 49% completed survey B. 6). The good news is that this can be achieved with some practice. Limited knowledge on and access to information regarding herbal medicines are the main barriers to the pharmacists' practice. Two-thirds of the respondents were males (66.67%) with a mean experience of 11±8 years as compared to that seen in female respondents which was 8±5 (p=0.03). Background: The inappropriate use of medicine is a widespread problem, especially in developing countries. Working surface and shelves Working surfaces, cupboards and shelves need to be in a good state of repair and in a clean and tidy condition. Patient response to concentric bifocal contact lenses. ���� JFIF ` ` �� C SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. One group consisted of 12 eye care practitioners (ECPs) who regularly dispensed MFCL (on average minimum two patients per month), while the other group consisted of 12 ECPs who did not, or occasionally, dispensed MFCL (on an average one or less than one patient per month). A number of routine checks and procedures have been prepared for your guidance. higher level of misunderstanding than patients who could Pharmacist–patient communication barriers in dispensing practice Teshale Etiso Wado et al… Data showing qualifications of the eye care practitioners. This was one limitations of this study. Los profesionales que adaptaban una o menos lentillas multifocales al mes completaron la encuesta que describe las barreras potenciales, mientras que aquellos facultativos que adaptaban más lentes de contacto al mes completaron la encuesta que describe los factores facilitadores y motivadores. 30-35. The concept of bifocal contact lenses has a history since 1938, when Feinbloom from New York described a segmented Bifocal CL and a Trifocal CL (Moss, 1962). Lack of awareness among patients (90%) was the most common barrier from patients’ outlook. Vision and task performance with monovision and diffractive bifocal contact lenses. Herbal medicine use is increasing and the global market is estimated to be US$107 billion by the year 2017.Objectives. They are recommended to be 5). endobj GOOD DISPENSING PRACTICE MANUAL (2nd Edition) 5 4DISPENSARY DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT The dispensary, its fittings and equipment should be adequate for the purpose of dispensing. R��4|16�LJ]�O�T�.���:H���P�sV�^(f�8����4���K髤s�٪��jj��"hhQkzX�(`�c���&��P~� @ʼnۮp�+�3�#�;��Fg���(9 ib�DeNR=mS�#+VG:�3�D�G�uS>j����B�g_4�b1�Z"��d���v�M¦N�҈H݉�����)-M�0�-��_��F\3�e�K7�B��M��������_�[email protected]���Ed�(���ڂ%��Β���"��BAF�� ژM5��RX���ש��+�jR��t��w6U� R��s��q��4i�lj�����F�~�"cY��&T�O��Q����� "�_��I�&\:mE�B�a�T*��?�]�k}���L&5!��V��XO(�T� the dispensing area itself is restricted to authorized person-nel only. The other option is a two-year diploma program in optometry which emphasizes refraction and ophthalmic techniques. endobj Professional satisfaction (88%) and better business proposition (82%) were observed as main motivators while availability of the trials (84%) and correct patient selection (82%) were the major enablers. 1 0 obj Dispensing Process Adherence to good dispensing procedures is vital in ensuring that medicines are dispensed correctly and any potential/ real errors which may occur during the dispensing process are detected and rectified before medicines reach the patient. %���� Our findings also differed from the assumptions made by Morgan et al. This guideline is used to provide guidance on compounding practice on the preparation used for treatment of any individual or aesthetic purposes. 4 0 obj A. Llorente-Guillemot, S. Garcia-Lazaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco. Barriers, motivators and enablers for dispensing MFCL were discussed and documented from both the practitioner and patient's perspective. 3). We relied on practitioners’ understanding of their patients’ views and did not directly reach out to the patients as it was important to get the information from the practitioners regarding the barriers faced by them, leading to limited dispensing of MFCL. But poor communication between patient and pharmacist carries potential adverse clinical consequences. PDF | Background: The inappropriate use of medicine is a widespread problem, especially in developing countries. Though graduated optometrist was motivated to dispense MFCL they felt dispensing MFCL did not provide a good business proposition (p=0.02) [B.optom – 73%, D.optom – 93% and Others – 50%] as compared to the diploma holders. For manual prescriptions, check if the patient is registered on the practice’s dispensing software system. All of its articles are freely available without charge and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivatives 4.0 International licence. Responses from survey A: (A) limitation in power range availability, (B) lack of confidence, (C) lack of knowledge and skills, (D) do not provide good business proposition, (E) increased chair time, (F) lack of motivation, (G) trial lenses not readily available and (H) lens material not suitable for long hours. Trial lens availability may motivate practitioners to prescribe MFCL. Stand-alone practitioners were observed to be more neutral and did not give any agreement or disagreement regarding their opinion about the awareness of these lenses among patients (p<0.05) [stand alone practice-43% and retail chain-11%]. Irrational dispensing practice like dispensing of prescription only drugs at partial dose and even without a prescription, poor labelling of the dispensed drugs, lack of patient counselling, incomplete compiling and recording of prescriptions and charging patients unreasonably high price The responses of the practitioner were rated on a five-point scale (from strongly disagree to strongly agree) based on their level of agreement to the statements in the survey. Basic demographic data of the practitioners, including their qualification and the years of experience, were documented after obtaining their consent. Finally the fourth part gives guidance to quality assurances of the dispensing practice and dispensed medicines. Barriers, motivators and enablers for dispensing multifocal contact lenses in Mumbai, India, Barreras, factores motivadores y factores facilitadores de la difusi? Spanish General Council of Optometry, International Association of Contact Lens Educators, Pune, Maharashtra, India, Dr. Doongerwala's Clinic, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Illinois College of Optometry, International Association of Contact Lens Educators, Chicago, IL, USA, To improve our services and products, we use cookies (own or third parties authorized) to show advertising related to client preferences through the analyses of navigation customer behavior. Schwinn Meridian Electric Motor Kit, Chicken To Go With Scalloped Potatoes, Stokke Tripp Trapp Complete Bundle, Houston Villas For Rent, Beautyrest Ultra Low Profile Box Spring Full, Cloves In Spanish, … Continue reading →" /> Q�{�Q���y�z���N�t��.�_��_�.`~G+��)}=j�8L�:)�M7���"�bJ�0y�d��{� Zg�ut׭�4�6��������*F�4��SD����,vu��:JX%��M'e�oK��K~��=t�x0�HJ����wYL�jď�Oc�7M�CP�(C�g�4a Two focus group discussions were conducted for designing the research questionnaires. Herbal Medicines: Personal Use, Knowledge, Attitude, Dispensing Practice, and the Barriers among Community Pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia Dessalegn Asmelashe Gelayee, Gashaw Binega Mekonnen, Seyfe Asrade Atnafe, Mequanent Kassa Birarra, Assefa Belay Asrie. ?n de lentes de contacto multifocales en Mumbai, India. Harris, J.E. Practitioners who regularly dispensed MFCL reported that professional satisfaction (88%) and better business proposition (82%) were their main motivators in prescribing these lenses (Fig. The Poison’s Act 1952 and the PHFSA 1998 and Regulations P.U. Patients with inadequate literacy and/or health literacy skills are the most likely to have difficulties in understanding proper drug use. Limited knowledge on and access to information regarding herbal medicines are the main barriers to the pharmacists' practice. To enhance the MFCL practice, barriers like lack of awareness and limitations in power range must be addressed. The following are the supplementary data to this article: Are you a health professional able to prescribe or dispense drugs? Para mejorar la práctica de las MFCL, deben abordarse las barreras tales como la falta de concienciación y las limitaciones del rango de potencia. <>>> The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. <> It was also thought that unavailability of an ideal MFCL leading to compromised visual performance will make the patients dissatisfied, however according to this study practitioners did not think it to be a significant barrier from patient's perspective. Majority of the respondents had good knowledge and good practice on dispensing ECP and possessed a positive attitude towards the use of ECP. Responses from survey A: (A) lack of motivation, (B) unsatisfactory vision with multifocal contact lenses, (C) lack of awareness and (D) expensive. x��W�n9}7���Lˢ�Z�M\Թ�mQ�x�l��&��Kj4�o�8�Y�)��������d0���Z�@q���o���p G�n��QH�o���?/Ҕ�Jh��ݎ�~w;_(����ngD�0� Vv¦�j�6��� P%�O8T{:4Zx���n�(�F�Rg M���u���,�Zg���:4g`k�*@�1�k[�ݘʹ+�D�`= Sheedy, M.R. • Draft Good Dispensing Practice Guidelines(PSD)/2015 . When this study was conducted, presbyopic lenses from only two multinational companies (B&L and J&J) were available to the practitioners. 102 (77%) out of 133 ECPs successfully completed the survey. Further probing is required to understand lack of motivation among experienced practitioners. where11: Possibility of patients losing faith in the practitioner was considered to be a barrier; on the contrary, in our study patient loyalty and increased referrals were found to be motivators. DISPENSING Dispensing is an important part of the practice of pharmacy, in which the dispenser interprets the physician's requirements on the prescription and accordingly supplies medicines for the treatment of his patient (s). In 1957, DeCarle in London developed simultaneous-vision bifocal CLs that were free from the problem of rotation, which became the basis for current bifocal CL (DeCarle, 1989). Dichos cuestionarios fueron distribuidos entre 133 profesionales de cuidados oculares en Mumbai, India. J.E. The degree of Bachelors in optometry is granted after four years of training. Today's presbyopes, especially in the metropolitan cities are observed to be leading an active and diverse lifestyle. Harris, M.R. Dispensing of MFCLs in India can be enhanced by addressing major barriers such as limitations in power range and lack of awareness of availability of these lenses among CL wearers. This will not only help boost the confidence of the practitioners but will also help in reducing the extra chair time which is considered as one of the major barriers by practitioners. In the latter half of the 1980s to the 1990s, nonspherical progressive MFCL (Stein, 1990) and diffraction CL (Freeman and Stone, 1987) were developed, and a large number of bifocal CLs were made. This Guidelines are consistent with existing laws and regulations and also in line with the Guidelines for Good Medical Practice of the Malaysian Medical Council. Spanish General Council of Optometry, Journal of Optometry is a member and subscribes the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), © Copyright 2020. 6 0 obj All the discussed points covering the barriers, motivators and enablers were rated by the two groups from being the most common and relevant to the least common and relevant points responsible for the limitation in dispensing MFCL. All the discussed points covering the barriers, motivators and enablers were rated by the two groups from being the most common and relevant to the least common and relevant points responsible for the limitation in dispensing MFCL. This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes and practices of community pharmacists regarding their participation in public health activities and barriers to their … In an earlier study Morgan et al. Perhaps one of the biggest barriers to reflection is you! Usual common causes of mistakes to the reported extent are lack of concentration (90%), similarity in the drug name (51%), inexperience/lack of knowledge (16%), misreading medication order (8%) and wrong assumption (5%). This dispensing pattern is similar to another study conducted in Tamil Nadu, India, where 58% of the pharmacists dispensed drugs without prescription but better than practices in other countries such as Egypt (72%), Tanzania (77%), and Vietnam (99%) where higher rates of dispensing without prescriptions were documented. The J Optom welcomes the submission of original manuscripts and reviews describing clinical and experimental research in the field of Optometry, Ophthalmic Optics, Ocular Surface and Basic and Applied Visual Science in general; research on Instruments and Techniques, Reports of Clinical Cases, and clinically relevant laboratory investigations are also welcomed. Most common potential barriers in prescribing MFCL were increased chair time (75%), lack of readily available trials (69%) and limitation in power range (63%). Mook. guide to good hygiene practice vending and dispensing language en summary dispensing dispensing ... other areas of good practice referred to in the retail guide include temperature control display of open foods pest control and the principles behind hazard analysis the use of the guide is optional however 3. You are strongly advised to observe them on each occasion you dispense a prescription. main barriers were lack of knowledge, limited access of information,andunregulatedsaleofthepreparationsinthe nation. The difference in the mean was tested using unpaired t-test and difference in the proportions was tested using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test (for low expected cell counts). It is an open access journal. To ensure the consistent quality of products, you build quality directly into your processes and into your way of thinking and working. Audience of J Optom includes Optometrists, Ophthalmologists and Visual Scientists as well as undergraduate and post-graduate students in these fields. We also wanted to identify the motivators and enablers from the practitioners who have been successfully dispensing these lenses and the impact of factors like, years of experience, type of practice and different optometry training levels contributing to the prescribing of these lenses. Bronge, S.M. The majority of practitioners reported that lack of awareness (90%) was the major barrier from patient's perspective, while cost was the secondary barrier (48%) (Fig. Contact lens prescribing pattern in India—2011. Experienced practitioners were observed to be least motivated (p=0.01) and believed that their patients found these lenses expensive (p=0.02). SNIP measures contextual citation impact by wighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 47 community pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, using a structured interviewing questionnaire.Results. Responses from survey B: (A) multiple sales and good business proposition, (B) achievement of professional satisfaction, (C) increase in patient loyalty and (D) increase in patient referrals. 5 0 obj dispensing environment and medicines stock management. Currently there are very few MFCL options available in India. This will help in better management of the presbyopic lens wearing population in India. Within each issue, all abstracts will be translated into Spanish by the Editorial Office. Community pharmacists have an opportunity to optimize medication use and improve patient outcomes. Nearly half of the respondents (, 46.8%) … ��nQ�ˣ1�qiC4Oe7�ؒ Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low astigmatic presbyopia. Journal of Optometry The Journal of Optometry (J Optom) is the scientific double blind peer-reviewed publication of the Spanish General Council of Optometrists (www.cgcoo.es). endstream Medical supply: means any article that may be used on the inner or outer part of the body for diagnosis or treatment of disease in man or animal. Is binocular contrast sensitivity at distance compromised with multifocal soft contact lenses used to correct presbyopia?. stream hypothesized that psychological factors, like, the lack of product awareness, fitting skills, technical know-how and confidence among practitioners could be the primary barriers in fitting MFCL.11 While these barriers featured in our study, they were not found to be the most significant ones. As about 62% of the practitioners showed least or neutral response in the level of motivation toward dispensing MFCL, increasing the level of self-motivation of the practitioner is very important for dispensing these lenses as that will positively influence their recommendation to the patient. Further research and probing are required to understand lack of motivation among experienced practitioners. To understand the potential barriers, motivators and enablers in dispensing multifocal contact lenses (MFCL). Task and visual performance with concentric bifocal contact lenses. An almost equal number of respondents completed each survey, 51% of ECPs completed survey A while 49% completed survey B. 6). The good news is that this can be achieved with some practice. Limited knowledge on and access to information regarding herbal medicines are the main barriers to the pharmacists' practice. Two-thirds of the respondents were males (66.67%) with a mean experience of 11±8 years as compared to that seen in female respondents which was 8±5 (p=0.03). Background: The inappropriate use of medicine is a widespread problem, especially in developing countries. Working surface and shelves Working surfaces, cupboards and shelves need to be in a good state of repair and in a clean and tidy condition. Patient response to concentric bifocal contact lenses. ���� JFIF ` ` �� C SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. One group consisted of 12 eye care practitioners (ECPs) who regularly dispensed MFCL (on average minimum two patients per month), while the other group consisted of 12 ECPs who did not, or occasionally, dispensed MFCL (on an average one or less than one patient per month). A number of routine checks and procedures have been prepared for your guidance. higher level of misunderstanding than patients who could Pharmacist–patient communication barriers in dispensing practice Teshale Etiso Wado et al… Data showing qualifications of the eye care practitioners. This was one limitations of this study. Los profesionales que adaptaban una o menos lentillas multifocales al mes completaron la encuesta que describe las barreras potenciales, mientras que aquellos facultativos que adaptaban más lentes de contacto al mes completaron la encuesta que describe los factores facilitadores y motivadores. 30-35. The concept of bifocal contact lenses has a history since 1938, when Feinbloom from New York described a segmented Bifocal CL and a Trifocal CL (Moss, 1962). Lack of awareness among patients (90%) was the most common barrier from patients’ outlook. Vision and task performance with monovision and diffractive bifocal contact lenses. Herbal medicine use is increasing and the global market is estimated to be US$107 billion by the year 2017.Objectives. They are recommended to be 5). endobj GOOD DISPENSING PRACTICE MANUAL (2nd Edition) 5 4DISPENSARY DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT The dispensary, its fittings and equipment should be adequate for the purpose of dispensing. R��4|16�LJ]�O�T�.���:H���P�sV�^(f�8����4���K髤s�٪��jj��"hhQkzX�(`�c���&��P~� @ʼnۮp�+�3�#�;��Fg���(9 ib�DeNR=mS�#+VG:�3�D�G�uS>j����B�g_4�b1�Z"��d���v�M¦N�҈H݉�����)-M�0�-��_��F\3�e�K7�B��M��������_�[email protected]���Ed�(���ڂ%��Β���"��BAF�� ژM5��RX���ש��+�jR��t��w6U� R��s��q��4i�lj�����F�~�"cY��&T�O��Q����� "�_��I�&\:mE�B�a�T*��?�]�k}���L&5!��V��XO(�T� the dispensing area itself is restricted to authorized person-nel only. The other option is a two-year diploma program in optometry which emphasizes refraction and ophthalmic techniques. endobj Professional satisfaction (88%) and better business proposition (82%) were observed as main motivators while availability of the trials (84%) and correct patient selection (82%) were the major enablers. 1 0 obj Dispensing Process Adherence to good dispensing procedures is vital in ensuring that medicines are dispensed correctly and any potential/ real errors which may occur during the dispensing process are detected and rectified before medicines reach the patient. %���� Our findings also differed from the assumptions made by Morgan et al. This guideline is used to provide guidance on compounding practice on the preparation used for treatment of any individual or aesthetic purposes. 4 0 obj A. Llorente-Guillemot, S. Garcia-Lazaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco. Barriers, motivators and enablers for dispensing MFCL were discussed and documented from both the practitioner and patient's perspective. 3). We relied on practitioners’ understanding of their patients’ views and did not directly reach out to the patients as it was important to get the information from the practitioners regarding the barriers faced by them, leading to limited dispensing of MFCL. But poor communication between patient and pharmacist carries potential adverse clinical consequences. PDF | Background: The inappropriate use of medicine is a widespread problem, especially in developing countries. Though graduated optometrist was motivated to dispense MFCL they felt dispensing MFCL did not provide a good business proposition (p=0.02) [B.optom – 73%, D.optom – 93% and Others – 50%] as compared to the diploma holders. For manual prescriptions, check if the patient is registered on the practice’s dispensing software system. All of its articles are freely available without charge and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivatives 4.0 International licence. Responses from survey A: (A) limitation in power range availability, (B) lack of confidence, (C) lack of knowledge and skills, (D) do not provide good business proposition, (E) increased chair time, (F) lack of motivation, (G) trial lenses not readily available and (H) lens material not suitable for long hours. Trial lens availability may motivate practitioners to prescribe MFCL. Stand-alone practitioners were observed to be more neutral and did not give any agreement or disagreement regarding their opinion about the awareness of these lenses among patients (p<0.05) [stand alone practice-43% and retail chain-11%]. Irrational dispensing practice like dispensing of prescription only drugs at partial dose and even without a prescription, poor labelling of the dispensed drugs, lack of patient counselling, incomplete compiling and recording of prescriptions and charging patients unreasonably high price The responses of the practitioner were rated on a five-point scale (from strongly disagree to strongly agree) based on their level of agreement to the statements in the survey. Basic demographic data of the practitioners, including their qualification and the years of experience, were documented after obtaining their consent. Finally the fourth part gives guidance to quality assurances of the dispensing practice and dispensed medicines. Barriers, motivators and enablers for dispensing multifocal contact lenses in Mumbai, India, Barreras, factores motivadores y factores facilitadores de la difusi? Spanish General Council of Optometry, International Association of Contact Lens Educators, Pune, Maharashtra, India, Dr. Doongerwala's Clinic, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Illinois College of Optometry, International Association of Contact Lens Educators, Chicago, IL, USA, To improve our services and products, we use cookies (own or third parties authorized) to show advertising related to client preferences through the analyses of navigation customer behavior. Schwinn Meridian Electric Motor Kit, Chicken To Go With Scalloped Potatoes, Stokke Tripp Trapp Complete Bundle, Houston Villas For Rent, Beautyrest Ultra Low Profile Box Spring Full, Cloves In Spanish, … Continue reading →" />
 
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This study aimed at assessing community pharmacists’ personal use, knowledge, attitude, dispensing practice, and the barriers regarding herbal medicines.Methods. Pharmacist–patient communication barriers in dispensing practice: a descriptive study in Adama Hospital Medical College, Adama City, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. It is designed to minimise the potential for dispensing errors and to save you time and expense. Good Manufacturing Practice from dispensing to packaging Your products help people stay healthier and improve well-being. Different geographical locations may have different factors governing the MFCL dispensing. The data entered in MS Excel were converted to Stata for analysis using Stata Version 11. Las barreras potenciales más comunes de la prescripción de MFCL fueron el incremento del tiempo de consulta (75%), la falta de disponibilidad de lentes de prueba (69%) y la limitación del rango de potencia (63%). Good dispensing practices ensure that an effective form of the correct medicine is delivered to the right patient, in the correct dosage and quantity, with clear instruc-tions, and in a … Continuing navigation will be considered as acceptance of this use. <> Our sincere thanks to Dr. Maninder Setia for his help with the statistical analysis and Judith Flanagan for proof reading the manuscript. The second describes principles, processes of good dispensing practices and about the dispensers followed by medicines information. Dispensing techniques (compounding and good practice) A. J. Winfield (original author M. M. Moody) 7 77 After studying this chapter you will know about: Good dispensing practice to ensure quality The working environment and procedures Extemporaneous dispensing equipment and its correct use, including: Balances Liquid measuring Mortar and pestle Indian J Ophthalmol, 60 (2012), pp. Manuscripts must be submitted in English language irrespective of the native language of the authors. The means and standard deviation for the linear variables and proportions for categorical variables were estimated. You can change the settings or obtain more information by clicking. Good Dispensing Practice Manual Operational definitions Drug: means any substance or mixture of substances used in the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of a disease in man or animal. This study was thus conducted to get a better understanding of the barriers perceived by practitioners in India, which could be the major reason to limit the popularity of these lenses. Barriers, motivators and enablers for dispensing multifocal contact lenses in... http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-0938.2011.00666.x, http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.opx.0000197958.83213.b1, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-0938.2010.00524.x, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-0938.2007.00242.x, http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0301-4738.100534, The eye: ¿An organ that must not be forgotten in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic¿, Post-COVID-19 and the Portuguese national eye care system challenge. Guide to Good Dispensing Practice: 2016 Page 4 3. endobj Barriers, motivators and enablers for dispensing MFCL were discussed and documented from both the practitioner and patient's perspective. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are designed to improve the quality of care and reduce unjustified individual variation in clinical practice. La falta de concienciación de los pacientes (90%) fue la barrera más común desde la perspectiva del paciente. Bifocal contact lenses: history, types, characteristics and actual state and problem. Experienced professionals and contact lens manufacturers can conduct educational programs in presbyopic contact lens fitting in order to enhance skills of the practitioners. Shyam K. Adhikari Department of Drug Administration 2. Understanding and addressing these factors might help in exploring the untapped market of MFCL. Barriers to Practice and the Impact on Health Care: A Nurse Practitioner Focus ... the term “good ole . This questionnaire included questions for ECPs from both practitioner and patient's perspective. Drug dispensers should provide appropriate, understandable and relevant information to patient about their medication. Unfortunately this is one of the hardest to overcome but it can be done. Natural appearance (86%) and unrestricted field of view (84%) were observed as the major motivators from the patient's point of view (Fig. Making trial lenses readily available might help to build confidence and motivate practitioners to recommend these lenses. The J Optom publishes Full-Length Original Articles, Scientific Letters, Critical Reviews, Editorials, Letters to Editor and other Authors. Today, a wide range of both rigid gas permeable and soft multifocal contact lenses (MFCL) – as an option for correcting presbyopia – are available globally.1, Lens design, lighting and contrast are known to affect the visual performance of these lenses. “Research reports lack clear practice implications and generalizability” (Wells, Free & Adam, 2007, p. 136). The role of optometrists in India: an integral part of an eye health team. The third group is made up of practitioners with no formal optometric training. However, some of the respondents felt that ECP should not be categorized under OTC drugs and agreed that ECP without prescription would promote unsafe sex and the CPPs lacked specific information about ECP such as side effects, dosing schedule, … Graduate Optometrists felt dispensing MFCL did not offer a good business proposition (p=0.02). Promoting Efficient Management in Dispensing: Overcrowded pharmacies need a good management. Mook. Responses from survey B: (A) adequate knowledge and skills, (B) easy motivation through good communication, (C) correct patient selection, (D) increased confidence due to trial lens availability and (E) good awareness through marketing. Instead, availability of trial lens, power range and increased chair time were observed to be more significant barriers this could be because the study was conducted in India. The final questionnaire was distributed among 133 practitioners across Mumbai, India, through either email with prior telephonic explanation about the survey or through personal distribution of the questionnaire with explanation prior to enrollment. Journal of Optometry accepts and publishes articles in English. Questions on potential barriers and motivators were included. All the highly rated points were considered and incorporated in designing the final questionnaire, which was used during the survey. Comprender las barreras potenciales y los factores motivadores y facilitadores de la dispensación de lentes de contacto multifocales (MFCL). This work is conducted without external financial support. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess patient knowledge of dosage regimen and the pharmacists dispensing practice.Method: A cross-sectional study design … They are concerned about health and are equally conscious about their appearance.11,12 It was found that more presbyopes, especially females, as compared to males, opt for wearing lenses supporting the fact that this group is more conscious about cosmesis.11 It is important to make them aware of the existence and advantages of these lenses. M.G. Practitioners need to be trained on proper patient selection, an important enabler according to our study, as the success of these lenses has great dependence on correct patient selection.12. ]m��5E_�U�v�uQ���l Practitioners fitting one or less patient per month with MFCL completed the survey describing potential barriers, while those who prescribed more MFCL's per month completed the survey describing enablers and motivators. The majority of practices represented were stand-alone (81%) as compared to (19%) retail chain outlets. Narcissistic listening is a form of self-centered and self-absorbed listening in … endobj $.' Proper dispensing practices as part of medication therapy increase benefits and minimize risks to the consumers. Sheedy, M.G. endobj Good pharmacy practice (GPP) guidelines have been framed and implemented in India to achieve a standard practice. with the dispensing software procedures, then go to step 6 2. Evaluation of two new soft contact lenses for correction of presbyopia: the Focus Progressives multifocal and the Acuvue Bifocal. Data were manually entered in an excel sheet and was used for final analysis. Along with barriers, the study also gathered information about motivators and enablers for dispensing MFCL, which may help in planning strategies to overcome the barriers. Z��P�PuU\��>�����"0t����Hu� ��[email protected]�J6���!�l�|��g�y4g6A\=a�K�]z]�L��]6�Hց����o��tUy`B��(4QZ���4�)�����͵��/>Q�{�Q���y�z���N�t��.�_��_�.`~G+��)}=j�8L�:)�M7���"�bJ�0y�d��{� Zg�ut׭�4�6��������*F�4��SD����,vu��:JX%��M'e�oK��K~��=t�x0�HJ����wYL�jď�Oc�7M�CP�(C�g�4a Two focus group discussions were conducted for designing the research questionnaires. Herbal Medicines: Personal Use, Knowledge, Attitude, Dispensing Practice, and the Barriers among Community Pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia Dessalegn Asmelashe Gelayee, Gashaw Binega Mekonnen, Seyfe Asrade Atnafe, Mequanent Kassa Birarra, Assefa Belay Asrie. ?n de lentes de contacto multifocales en Mumbai, India. Harris, J.E. Practitioners who regularly dispensed MFCL reported that professional satisfaction (88%) and better business proposition (82%) were their main motivators in prescribing these lenses (Fig. The Poison’s Act 1952 and the PHFSA 1998 and Regulations P.U. Patients with inadequate literacy and/or health literacy skills are the most likely to have difficulties in understanding proper drug use. Limited knowledge on and access to information regarding herbal medicines are the main barriers to the pharmacists' practice. To enhance the MFCL practice, barriers like lack of awareness and limitations in power range must be addressed. The following are the supplementary data to this article: Are you a health professional able to prescribe or dispense drugs? Para mejorar la práctica de las MFCL, deben abordarse las barreras tales como la falta de concienciación y las limitaciones del rango de potencia. <>>> The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. <> It was also thought that unavailability of an ideal MFCL leading to compromised visual performance will make the patients dissatisfied, however according to this study practitioners did not think it to be a significant barrier from patient's perspective. Majority of the respondents had good knowledge and good practice on dispensing ECP and possessed a positive attitude towards the use of ECP. Responses from survey A: (A) lack of motivation, (B) unsatisfactory vision with multifocal contact lenses, (C) lack of awareness and (D) expensive. x��W�n9}7���Lˢ�Z�M\Թ�mQ�x�l��&��Kj4�o�8�Y�)��������d0���Z�@q���o���p G�n��QH�o���?/Ҕ�Jh��ݎ�~w;_(����ngD�0� Vv¦�j�6��� P%�O8T{:4Zx���n�(�F�Rg M���u���,�Zg���:4g`k�*@�1�k[�ݘʹ+�D�`= Sheedy, M.R. • Draft Good Dispensing Practice Guidelines(PSD)/2015 . When this study was conducted, presbyopic lenses from only two multinational companies (B&L and J&J) were available to the practitioners. 102 (77%) out of 133 ECPs successfully completed the survey. Further probing is required to understand lack of motivation among experienced practitioners. where11: Possibility of patients losing faith in the practitioner was considered to be a barrier; on the contrary, in our study patient loyalty and increased referrals were found to be motivators. DISPENSING Dispensing is an important part of the practice of pharmacy, in which the dispenser interprets the physician's requirements on the prescription and accordingly supplies medicines for the treatment of his patient (s). In 1957, DeCarle in London developed simultaneous-vision bifocal CLs that were free from the problem of rotation, which became the basis for current bifocal CL (DeCarle, 1989). Dichos cuestionarios fueron distribuidos entre 133 profesionales de cuidados oculares en Mumbai, India. J.E. The degree of Bachelors in optometry is granted after four years of training. Today's presbyopes, especially in the metropolitan cities are observed to be leading an active and diverse lifestyle. Harris, M.R. Dispensing of MFCLs in India can be enhanced by addressing major barriers such as limitations in power range and lack of awareness of availability of these lenses among CL wearers. This will not only help boost the confidence of the practitioners but will also help in reducing the extra chair time which is considered as one of the major barriers by practitioners. In the latter half of the 1980s to the 1990s, nonspherical progressive MFCL (Stein, 1990) and diffraction CL (Freeman and Stone, 1987) were developed, and a large number of bifocal CLs were made. This Guidelines are consistent with existing laws and regulations and also in line with the Guidelines for Good Medical Practice of the Malaysian Medical Council. Spanish General Council of Optometry, Journal of Optometry is a member and subscribes the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), © Copyright 2020. 6 0 obj All the discussed points covering the barriers, motivators and enablers were rated by the two groups from being the most common and relevant to the least common and relevant points responsible for the limitation in dispensing MFCL. All the discussed points covering the barriers, motivators and enablers were rated by the two groups from being the most common and relevant to the least common and relevant points responsible for the limitation in dispensing MFCL. This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes and practices of community pharmacists regarding their participation in public health activities and barriers to their … In an earlier study Morgan et al. Perhaps one of the biggest barriers to reflection is you! Usual common causes of mistakes to the reported extent are lack of concentration (90%), similarity in the drug name (51%), inexperience/lack of knowledge (16%), misreading medication order (8%) and wrong assumption (5%). This dispensing pattern is similar to another study conducted in Tamil Nadu, India, where 58% of the pharmacists dispensed drugs without prescription but better than practices in other countries such as Egypt (72%), Tanzania (77%), and Vietnam (99%) where higher rates of dispensing without prescriptions were documented. The J Optom welcomes the submission of original manuscripts and reviews describing clinical and experimental research in the field of Optometry, Ophthalmic Optics, Ocular Surface and Basic and Applied Visual Science in general; research on Instruments and Techniques, Reports of Clinical Cases, and clinically relevant laboratory investigations are also welcomed. Most common potential barriers in prescribing MFCL were increased chair time (75%), lack of readily available trials (69%) and limitation in power range (63%). Mook. guide to good hygiene practice vending and dispensing language en summary dispensing dispensing ... other areas of good practice referred to in the retail guide include temperature control display of open foods pest control and the principles behind hazard analysis the use of the guide is optional however 3. You are strongly advised to observe them on each occasion you dispense a prescription. main barriers were lack of knowledge, limited access of information,andunregulatedsaleofthepreparationsinthe nation. The difference in the mean was tested using unpaired t-test and difference in the proportions was tested using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test (for low expected cell counts). It is an open access journal. To ensure the consistent quality of products, you build quality directly into your processes and into your way of thinking and working. Audience of J Optom includes Optometrists, Ophthalmologists and Visual Scientists as well as undergraduate and post-graduate students in these fields. We also wanted to identify the motivators and enablers from the practitioners who have been successfully dispensing these lenses and the impact of factors like, years of experience, type of practice and different optometry training levels contributing to the prescribing of these lenses. Bronge, S.M. The majority of practitioners reported that lack of awareness (90%) was the major barrier from patient's perspective, while cost was the secondary barrier (48%) (Fig. Contact lens prescribing pattern in India—2011. Experienced practitioners were observed to be least motivated (p=0.01) and believed that their patients found these lenses expensive (p=0.02). SNIP measures contextual citation impact by wighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 47 community pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, using a structured interviewing questionnaire.Results. Responses from survey B: (A) multiple sales and good business proposition, (B) achievement of professional satisfaction, (C) increase in patient loyalty and (D) increase in patient referrals. 5 0 obj dispensing environment and medicines stock management. Currently there are very few MFCL options available in India. This will help in better management of the presbyopic lens wearing population in India. Within each issue, all abstracts will be translated into Spanish by the Editorial Office. Community pharmacists have an opportunity to optimize medication use and improve patient outcomes. Nearly half of the respondents (, 46.8%) … ��nQ�ˣ1�qiC4Oe7�ؒ Comparison of multifocal and monovision soft contact lens corrections in patients with low astigmatic presbyopia. Journal of Optometry The Journal of Optometry (J Optom) is the scientific double blind peer-reviewed publication of the Spanish General Council of Optometrists (www.cgcoo.es). endstream Medical supply: means any article that may be used on the inner or outer part of the body for diagnosis or treatment of disease in man or animal. Is binocular contrast sensitivity at distance compromised with multifocal soft contact lenses used to correct presbyopia?. stream hypothesized that psychological factors, like, the lack of product awareness, fitting skills, technical know-how and confidence among practitioners could be the primary barriers in fitting MFCL.11 While these barriers featured in our study, they were not found to be the most significant ones. As about 62% of the practitioners showed least or neutral response in the level of motivation toward dispensing MFCL, increasing the level of self-motivation of the practitioner is very important for dispensing these lenses as that will positively influence their recommendation to the patient. Further research and probing are required to understand lack of motivation among experienced practitioners. To understand the potential barriers, motivators and enablers in dispensing multifocal contact lenses (MFCL). Task and visual performance with concentric bifocal contact lenses. An almost equal number of respondents completed each survey, 51% of ECPs completed survey A while 49% completed survey B. 6). The good news is that this can be achieved with some practice. Limited knowledge on and access to information regarding herbal medicines are the main barriers to the pharmacists' practice. Two-thirds of the respondents were males (66.67%) with a mean experience of 11±8 years as compared to that seen in female respondents which was 8±5 (p=0.03). Background: The inappropriate use of medicine is a widespread problem, especially in developing countries. Working surface and shelves Working surfaces, cupboards and shelves need to be in a good state of repair and in a clean and tidy condition. Patient response to concentric bifocal contact lenses. ���� JFIF ` ` �� C SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. One group consisted of 12 eye care practitioners (ECPs) who regularly dispensed MFCL (on average minimum two patients per month), while the other group consisted of 12 ECPs who did not, or occasionally, dispensed MFCL (on an average one or less than one patient per month). A number of routine checks and procedures have been prepared for your guidance. higher level of misunderstanding than patients who could Pharmacist–patient communication barriers in dispensing practice Teshale Etiso Wado et al… Data showing qualifications of the eye care practitioners. This was one limitations of this study. Los profesionales que adaptaban una o menos lentillas multifocales al mes completaron la encuesta que describe las barreras potenciales, mientras que aquellos facultativos que adaptaban más lentes de contacto al mes completaron la encuesta que describe los factores facilitadores y motivadores. 30-35. The concept of bifocal contact lenses has a history since 1938, when Feinbloom from New York described a segmented Bifocal CL and a Trifocal CL (Moss, 1962). Lack of awareness among patients (90%) was the most common barrier from patients’ outlook. Vision and task performance with monovision and diffractive bifocal contact lenses. Herbal medicine use is increasing and the global market is estimated to be US$107 billion by the year 2017.Objectives. They are recommended to be 5). endobj GOOD DISPENSING PRACTICE MANUAL (2nd Edition) 5 4DISPENSARY DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT The dispensary, its fittings and equipment should be adequate for the purpose of dispensing. R��4|16�LJ]�O�T�.���:H���P�sV�^(f�8����4���K髤s�٪��jj��"hhQkzX�(`�c���&��P~� @ʼnۮp�+�3�#�;��Fg���(9 ib�DeNR=mS�#+VG:�3�D�G�uS>j����B�g_4�b1�Z"��d���v�M¦N�҈H݉�����)-M�0�-��_��F\3�e�K7�B��M��������_�[email protected]���Ed�(���ڂ%��Β���"��BAF�� ژM5��RX���ש��+�jR��t��w6U� R��s��q��4i�lj�����F�~�"cY��&T�O��Q����� "�_��I�&\:mE�B�a�T*��?�]�k}���L&5!��V��XO(�T� the dispensing area itself is restricted to authorized person-nel only. The other option is a two-year diploma program in optometry which emphasizes refraction and ophthalmic techniques. endobj Professional satisfaction (88%) and better business proposition (82%) were observed as main motivators while availability of the trials (84%) and correct patient selection (82%) were the major enablers. 1 0 obj Dispensing Process Adherence to good dispensing procedures is vital in ensuring that medicines are dispensed correctly and any potential/ real errors which may occur during the dispensing process are detected and rectified before medicines reach the patient. %���� Our findings also differed from the assumptions made by Morgan et al. This guideline is used to provide guidance on compounding practice on the preparation used for treatment of any individual or aesthetic purposes. 4 0 obj A. Llorente-Guillemot, S. Garcia-Lazaro, T. Ferrer-Blasco. Barriers, motivators and enablers for dispensing MFCL were discussed and documented from both the practitioner and patient's perspective. 3). We relied on practitioners’ understanding of their patients’ views and did not directly reach out to the patients as it was important to get the information from the practitioners regarding the barriers faced by them, leading to limited dispensing of MFCL. But poor communication between patient and pharmacist carries potential adverse clinical consequences. PDF | Background: The inappropriate use of medicine is a widespread problem, especially in developing countries. Though graduated optometrist was motivated to dispense MFCL they felt dispensing MFCL did not provide a good business proposition (p=0.02) [B.optom – 73%, D.optom – 93% and Others – 50%] as compared to the diploma holders. For manual prescriptions, check if the patient is registered on the practice’s dispensing software system. All of its articles are freely available without charge and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivatives 4.0 International licence. Responses from survey A: (A) limitation in power range availability, (B) lack of confidence, (C) lack of knowledge and skills, (D) do not provide good business proposition, (E) increased chair time, (F) lack of motivation, (G) trial lenses not readily available and (H) lens material not suitable for long hours. Trial lens availability may motivate practitioners to prescribe MFCL. Stand-alone practitioners were observed to be more neutral and did not give any agreement or disagreement regarding their opinion about the awareness of these lenses among patients (p<0.05) [stand alone practice-43% and retail chain-11%]. Irrational dispensing practice like dispensing of prescription only drugs at partial dose and even without a prescription, poor labelling of the dispensed drugs, lack of patient counselling, incomplete compiling and recording of prescriptions and charging patients unreasonably high price The responses of the practitioner were rated on a five-point scale (from strongly disagree to strongly agree) based on their level of agreement to the statements in the survey. Basic demographic data of the practitioners, including their qualification and the years of experience, were documented after obtaining their consent. Finally the fourth part gives guidance to quality assurances of the dispensing practice and dispensed medicines. Barriers, motivators and enablers for dispensing multifocal contact lenses in Mumbai, India, Barreras, factores motivadores y factores facilitadores de la difusi? Spanish General Council of Optometry, International Association of Contact Lens Educators, Pune, Maharashtra, India, Dr. Doongerwala's Clinic, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Illinois College of Optometry, International Association of Contact Lens Educators, Chicago, IL, USA, To improve our services and products, we use cookies (own or third parties authorized) to show advertising related to client preferences through the analyses of navigation customer behavior.

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